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  • Author or Editor: Joshua B. Daniels x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To measure effects of oral Akkermansia muciniphila administration on systemic markers of gastrointestinal permeability and epithelial damage following antimicrobial administration in dogs.

ANIMALS 8 healthy adult dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either A muciniphila (109 cells/kg; n = 4) or vehicle (PBS solution; 4) for 6 days following metronidazole administration (12.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 7 d). After a 20-day washout period, the same dogs received the alternate treatment. After another washout period, experiments were repeated with amoxicillin-clavulanate (13.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) instead of metronidazole. Fecal consistency was scored, a quantitative real-time PCR assay for A muciniphila in feces was performed, and plasma concentrations of cytokeratin-18, lipopolysaccharide, and glucagon-like peptides were measured by ELISA before (T0) and after (T1) antimicrobial administration and after administration of A muciniphila or vehicle (T2).

RESULTS A muciniphila was detected in feces in 7 of 8 dogs after A muciniphila treatment at T2 (3/4 experiments) but not at T0 or T1. After metronidazole administration, mean change in plasma cytokeratin-18 concentration from T1 to T2 was significantly lower with vehicle than with A muciniphila treatment (−0.27 vs 2.4 ng/mL). Mean cytokeratin-18 concentration was lower at T1 than at T0 with amoxicillin-clavulanate. No other significant biomarker concentration changes were detected. Probiotic administration was not associated with changes in fecal scores. No adverse effects were attributed to A muciniphila treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Detection of A muciniphila in feces suggested successful gastrointestinal transit following oral supplementation in dogs. Plasma cytokeratin-18 alterations suggested an effect on gastrointestinal epithelium. Further study is needed to investigate effects in dogs with naturally occurring gastrointestinal disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To estimate the prevalence of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-, carbapenem-, and fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the feces of hospitalized horses and on hospital surfaces.

SAMPLE

Fecal and environmental samples were collected from The Ohio State University Galbreath Equine Center (OSUGEC) and a private referral equine hospital in Kentucky (KYEH). Feces were sampled within 24 hours after hospital admission and after 48 hours and 3 to 7 days of hospitalization.

PROCEDURES

Fecal and environmental samples were enriched, and then selective media were inoculated to support growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones.

RESULTS

358 fecal samples were obtained from 143 horses. More samples yielded growth of Enterobacteriaceae bacteria that expressed resistance phenotypes (AmpC β-lactamase, OR = 4.2; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, OR = 3.2; and fluoroquinolone resistance, OR = 4.0) after 48 hours of hospitalization, versus within 24 hours of hospital admission. Horses hospitalized at KYEH were at greater odds of having fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria (OR = 2.2). At OSUGEC, 82%, 64%, 0%, and 55% of 164 surfaces had Enterobacteriaceae bacteria with AmpC β-lactamase phenotype, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype, resistance to carbapenem, and resistance to fluoroquinolones, respectively; prevalences at KYEH were similarly distributed (52%, 32%, 1%, and 35% of 315 surfaces).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae may be isolated from the feces of hospitalized horses and from the hospital environment. Hospitalization may lead to increased fecal carriage of clinically important antimicrobial-resistance genes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance is a global One Health concern with critical implications for the health of humans, animals, and the environment. Phenotypic methods of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing remain the gold standards for the detection of antimicrobial resistance and appropriate patient care; however, genotypic-based methods, such as PCR, whole genome sequencing, and metagenomic sequencing, for detection of genes conferring antimicrobial resistance are increasingly available without inclusion of appropriate standards for quality or interpretation. Misleading test results may lead to inappropriate antimicrobial treatment and, in turn, poor patient outcomes and the potential for increased incidence of antimicrobial resistance. This article explores the current landscape of clinical and methodological aspects of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and genotypic antimicrobial resistance test methods. Additionally, it describes the limitations associated with employing genotypic-based test methods in the management of veterinary patients from a One Health perspective. The companion Currents in One Health by Maddock et al, AJVR, March 2024, addresses current and future needs for veterinary antimicrobial resistance research.

Open access

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical One Health concern with implications for human, animal, plant, and environmental health. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), antimicrobial resistance testing (ART), and surveillance practices must be harmonized across One Health sectors to ensure consistent detection and reporting practices. Veterinary diagnostic laboratory stewardship, clinical outcomes studies, and training for current and future generations of veterinarians and laboratorians are necessary to minimize the spread of AMR and move veterinary medicine forward into an age of better antimicrobial use practices. The purpose of this article is to describe current knowledge gaps present in the literature surrounding ART, AST, and clinical or surveillance applications of these methods and to suggest areas where AMR research can fill these knowledge gaps. The related Currents in One Health by Maddock et al, JAVMA, March 2024, addresses current limitations to the use of genotypic ART methods in clinical veterinary practice.

Open access

Abstract

Widespread use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine drives the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria in human, animal, and environmental reservoirs. The AVMA and FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine have both taken public positions emphasizing the importance of incorporating antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary clinical settings; however, a model for implementing a comprehensive antimicrobial stewardship program in veterinary practice is not readily available.

In 2015, The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine began developing a veterinary antimicrobial stewardship program modeled on existing programs in human health-care institutions and the 7 core elements of a successful hospital antimicrobial stewardship program, as defined by the CDC. The program includes comprehensive antimicrobial use guidelines, active environmental surveillance, and enhanced infection control procedures in The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center, along with routine monitoring and reporting of antimicrobial prescribing practices and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common pathogens isolated from patients and the hospital environment. Finally, programs have been developed to educate clinicians, staff, and students on antimicrobial resistance and appropriate antimicrobial prescribing practices.

The antimicrobial stewardship program has been designed to help clinicians and students confidently make judicious antimicrobial use decisions and provide them with actionable steps that can help them act as strong stewards while providing the best care for their patients. This report describes our program and the process involved in developing it, with the intent that the program could serve as a potential model for other veterinary medical institutions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association