Objectives—To determine incidence and identify predisposing
factors for sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) in
dogs with lymphoma that were treated with cyclophosphamide
and to evaluate whether furosemide administered
IV concurrently with cyclophosphamide decreased
the incidence of SHC.
Animals—216 dogs with lymphoma.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with lymphoma
that received cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in
accordance with 1 of 2 protocols, with or without concurrent
IV administration of furosemide, were examined.
Data for the 2 groups were analyzed to determine
the incidence and predisposing factors (age, breed, sex,
weight, previous or preexisting disease, previous or preexisting
urinary tract infection, neutropenia, azotemia,
dose, and number of cyclophosphamide treatments) for
Results—Cyclophosphamide-associated SHC developed
in 12 of 133 (9%) dogs that had not received concurrent
administration of furosemide and cyclophosphamide
treatments; of the 83 dogs that had received
furosemide, only 1 (1.2%) developed SHC. Dogs receiving
cyclophosphamide and furosemide concurrently
were significantly less likely to develop SHC than dogs
that did not receive furosemide. Dogs with previous or
preexisting immune-mediated disease were significantly
more likely to develop cyclophosphamide-associated
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of
results suggested an association between IV administration
of furosemide concurrently with cyclophosphamide
and decreased incidence of cyclophosphamide-
associated SHC. Incidence of cyclophosphamide-
associated SHC was similar in treated dogs
that did not receive concurrent furosemide to that
observed for other studies in which cyclophosphamide
was administered orally. Cyclophosphamide-associated
SHC appeared to develop early during the course of
chemotherapy when furosemide was not administered
concurrently with cyclophosphamide. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To evaluate efficacy of radiation for treatment
of incompletely resected soft-tissue sarcomas
Design—Prospective serial study.
Animals—48 dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas.
Procedure—Tumors were resected to < 3 cm3 prior
to radiation. Tumors were treated on alternate days
(three 3-Gy fractions/wk) until 21 fractions had been
administered. Cobalt 60 radiation was used for all
Results—Five-year survival rate was 76%, and survival
rate was not different among tumor types or
locations. Four (8%) dogs developed metastases.
Eight (17%) dogs had tumor recurrence after radiation.
Development of metastases and local recurrence
were significantly associated with reduced survival
rate. Median survival time in dogs that developed
metastases was 250 days. Median disease-free
interval for all dogs was 1,082 days. Median time to
recurrence was 700 days. Dogs that developed recurrence
after a prolonged period responded well to a
second surgery. Acute radiation toxicosis was minimal;
osteosarcoma developed at the radiation site in
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—An excellent
long-term survival rate may be achieved by treating
soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs with resection followed
by radiation. Amputation is not necessary for longterm
control of soft-tissue sarcomas in limbs.
Development of metastases and recurrence of local
tumors after radiation treatment are associated with
decreased survival rate. Acute and delayed radiation
toxicosis was minimal with the protocol used in this
study. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:205–210)
Objective—To determine whether argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs), Ki-67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) scores were associated with histologic grade and survival in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).
Animals—60 dogs with STSs.
Procedure—Medical records were examined and histologic specimens were reviewed. Tissue specimens obtained from archival materials were used to prepare sections for histologic staining for AgNOR and immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and PCNA labeling. Follow-up monitoring was obtained by reevaluation or telephone conversations with referring veterinarians or owners.
Results—27 (45%) STSs were grade 1, 23 (38%) were grade 2, and 10 (17%) were grade 3. The mean and median AgNOR, Ki-67, and PCNA scores were determined, and significant positive associations among AgNOR and Ki-67 scores with histologic grade and mitotic score were detected. Fifty-four dogs had adequate follow-up examinations and were included in survival analysis and evaluation of prognostic factors. Overall median survival time was > 1,306 days. Twelve of 54 (22%) dogs died of tumor-related causes. Metastatic disease developed in 8 of 54 (15%) dogs. Results of univariate analysis indicated that increased mitotic score, increased AgNOR score, increased Ki-67 score, incomplete surgical margins, noncurative intent surgery, Ki-67 score greater than the median Ki-67 score, and AgNOR score greater than the median AgNOR score were prognostic factors for decreased survival time. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that increased AgNOR score was the only prognostic factor for decreased survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that AgNORs and possibly Ki-67 should be routinely evaluated with histologic grading for STSs in dogs.