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  • Author or Editor: Josephine A. McKnight x
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Abstract

Objectives—To determine incidence and identify predisposing factors for sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) in dogs with lymphoma that were treated with cyclophosphamide and to evaluate whether furosemide administered IV concurrently with cyclophosphamide decreased the incidence of SHC.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—216 dogs with lymphoma.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs with lymphoma that received cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in accordance with 1 of 2 protocols, with or without concurrent IV administration of furosemide, were examined. Data for the 2 groups were analyzed to determine the incidence and predisposing factors (age, breed, sex, weight, previous or preexisting disease, previous or preexisting urinary tract infection, neutropenia, azotemia, dose, and number of cyclophosphamide treatments) for cyclophosphamide-associated SHC.

Results—Cyclophosphamide-associated SHC developed in 12 of 133 (9%) dogs that had not received concurrent administration of furosemide and cyclophosphamide treatments; of the 83 dogs that had received furosemide, only 1 (1.2%) developed SHC. Dogs receiving cyclophosphamide and furosemide concurrently were significantly less likely to develop SHC than dogs that did not receive furosemide. Dogs with previous or preexisting immune-mediated disease were significantly more likely to develop cyclophosphamide-associated SHC.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results suggested an association between IV administration of furosemide concurrently with cyclophosphamide and decreased incidence of cyclophosphamide- associated SHC. Incidence of cyclophosphamide- associated SHC was similar in treated dogs that did not receive concurrent furosemide to that observed for other studies in which cyclophosphamide was administered orally. Cyclophosphamide-associated SHC appeared to develop early during the course of chemotherapy when furosemide was not administered concurrently with cyclophosphamide. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1388–1393)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate efficacy of radiation for treatment of incompletely resected soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs.

Design—Prospective serial study.

Animals—48 dogs with soft-tissue sarcomas.

Procedure—Tumors were resected to < 3 cm3 prior to radiation. Tumors were treated on alternate days (three 3-Gy fractions/wk) until 21 fractions had been administered. Cobalt 60 radiation was used for all treatments.

Results—Five-year survival rate was 76%, and survival rate was not different among tumor types or locations. Four (8%) dogs developed metastases. Eight (17%) dogs had tumor recurrence after radiation. Development of metastases and local recurrence were significantly associated with reduced survival rate. Median survival time in dogs that developed metastases was 250 days. Median disease-free interval for all dogs was 1,082 days. Median time to recurrence was 700 days. Dogs that developed recurrence after a prolonged period responded well to a second surgery. Acute radiation toxicosis was minimal; osteosarcoma developed at the radiation site in 1 dog.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—An excellent long-term survival rate may be achieved by treating soft-tissue sarcomas in dogs with resection followed by radiation. Amputation is not necessary for longterm control of soft-tissue sarcomas in limbs. Development of metastases and recurrence of local tumors after radiation treatment are associated with decreased survival rate. Acute and delayed radiation toxicosis was minimal with the protocol used in this study. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:205–210)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs), Ki-67, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) scores were associated with histologic grade and survival in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas (STSs).

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—60 dogs with STSs.

Procedure—Medical records were examined and histologic specimens were reviewed. Tissue specimens obtained from archival materials were used to prepare sections for histologic staining for AgNOR and immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 and PCNA labeling. Follow-up monitoring was obtained by reevaluation or telephone conversations with referring veterinarians or owners.

Results—27 (45%) STSs were grade 1, 23 (38%) were grade 2, and 10 (17%) were grade 3. The mean and median AgNOR, Ki-67, and PCNA scores were determined, and significant positive associations among AgNOR and Ki-67 scores with histologic grade and mitotic score were detected. Fifty-four dogs had adequate follow-up examinations and were included in survival analysis and evaluation of prognostic factors. Overall median survival time was > 1,306 days. Twelve of 54 (22%) dogs died of tumor-related causes. Metastatic disease developed in 8 of 54 (15%) dogs. Results of univariate analysis indicated that increased mitotic score, increased AgNOR score, increased Ki-67 score, incomplete surgical margins, noncurative intent surgery, Ki-67 score greater than the median Ki-67 score, and AgNOR score greater than the median AgNOR score were prognostic factors for decreased survival time. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that increased AgNOR score was the only prognostic factor for decreased survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that AgNORs and possibly Ki-67 should be routinely evaluated with histologic grading for STSs in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association