To provide a video tutorial on how to perform an alternate method for urethral catheterization, the 2-catheter technique.
Small female cats and dogs that are too small for concurrent digital palpation (generally < 10 kg).
A larger red rubber catheter (18 Fr in dogs, and 10 Fr in cats) is gently fed into the vaginal canal and reflected dorsally, then a smaller urethral catheter can be introduced ventrally, angling downwards at a 45° angle, into the urethral orifice for urinary catheterization.
The 2-catheter method is a useful alternative in petite female cats and dogs to improve rates of successful catheterization.
The inability to perform concurrent digital palpation in petite female dogs and cats can make urinary catheterization more challenging due to the inability to palpate locoregional anatomic landmarks and without the added manipulation of the catheter tip during placement. Using a second, larger catheter to occlude the vaginal canal similarly to how a finger would during digital palpation can aid in successful catheterization in this challenging subset of veterinary patients.
To compare the success rates for urethral catheterization in clinical patients using the traditional and 2-catheter techniques when placed by personnel of all experience levels.
38 female cats and dogs weighing less than 10 kg were prospectively enrolled.
Enrolled animals were randomized to have a urethral catheter placed by the traditional technique or the 2-catheter method under sedation or general anesthesia. Any qualified hospital personnel of any experience level were allowed to place the catheter. If after 5 minutes the animal was not successfully catheterized, the alternate method was performed. The previous experience of the catheter placer, animal signalment, animal condition that necessitated catheter placement, time to successful placement, and which technique was successful was recorded.
The 2-catheter technique was more successful than the traditional method (60.5% and 34.2%, respectively) for urethral catheterization when used by a variety of hospital personnel. The 2-catheter technique was successful in 63.3% of dogs and 66.6% of cats, while the traditional method was successful in 36.6% of dogs and 33.3% of cats. Eight of 9 (88.9%) novice catheter placers that placed their first urinary catheter in this study succeeded with the 2-catheter technique and only 1 was successful with the traditional method.
The 2-catheter technique has a higher rate of success for placement of female urinary catheters in small patients that are unable to have concurrent digital palpation. This technique may also be helpful in the inexperienced catheter placer population to aid in guidance into the urethral papilla.
To provide updated information on the distribution of histopathologic types of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs and evaluate the effect of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.
Medical records of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for removal of a primary pulmonary mass were reviewed, and histopathologic type of lesions was determined. The canine lung carcinoma stage classification system was used to determine clinical stage for dogs with pulmonary carcinoma.
Pulmonary carcinoma was the most frequently encountered tumor type (296/340 [87.1%]), followed by sarcoma (26 [7.6%]), adenoma (11 [3.2%]), and pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (5 [1.5%]); there was also 1 plasmacytoma and 1 carcinosarcoma. Twenty (5.9%) sarcomas were classified as primary pulmonary histiocytic sarcoma. There was a significant difference in median survival time between dogs with pulmonary carcinomas (399 days), dogs with histiocytic sarcomas (300 days), and dogs with neuroendocrine tumors (498 days). When dogs with pulmonary carcinomas were grouped on the basis of clinical stage, there were no significant differences in median survival time between dogs that did and did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy.
Results indicated that pulmonary carcinoma is the most common cause of primary pulmonary neoplasia in dogs; however, nonepithelial tumors can occur. Survival times were significantly different between dogs with pulmonary carcinoma, histiocytic sarcoma, and neuroendocrine tumor, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the relative incidence of these various histologic diagnoses. The therapeutic effect of adjuvant chemotherapy in dogs with pulmonary carcinoma remains unclear and warrants further investigation.
To evaluate outcomes in cats undergoing subtotal colectomy for the treatment of idiopathic megacolon and to determine whether removal versus nonremoval of the ileocecocolic junction (ICJ) was associated with differences in outcome.
166 client-owned cats.
For this retrospective cohort study, medical records databases of 18 participating veterinary hospitals were searched to identify records of cats with idiopathic megacolon treated by subtotal colectomy from January 2000 to December 2018. Data collection included perioperative and surgical variables, complications, outcome, and owner perception of the procedure. Data were analyzed for associations with outcomes of interest, and Kaplan-Meier survival time analysis was performed.
Major perioperative complications occurred in 9.9% (15/151) of cats, and 14% (12/87) of cats died as a direct result of treatment or complications of megacolon. The median survival time was not reached. Cats with (vs without) a body condition score < 4/9 (hazard ratio [HR], 5.97), preexisting heart disease (HR, 3.21), major perioperative complications (HR, 27.8), or long-term postoperative liquid feces (HR, 10.4) had greater hazard of shorter survival time. Constipation recurrence occurred in 32% (24/74) of cats at a median time of 344 days and was not associated with retention versus removal of the ICJ; however, ICJ removal was associated with long-term liquid feces (OR, 3.45), and a fair or poor outcome on owner assessment (OR, 3.6).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that subtotal colectomy was associated with long survival times and a high rate of owner satisfaction. Removal of the ICJ was associated with less favorable outcomes in cats of the present study.