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4 calves were evaluated because of lameness and an angular limb deformity of the metatarsophalangeal region.
3 calves (ages, 5 days, 10 days, and 1 month) had a congenital varus deformity of the metatarsophalangeal region characterized by medial subluxation of the first phalanx of digits 3 and 4 at the metatarsophalangeal joints. A 6-month-old heifer had a valgus deformity of the metatarsophalangeal region secondary to a malunion of a Salter-Harris type II fracture. The degree of deformity angulation ranged from 16° to 54° for the 4 patients.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A closing wedge ostectomy with transfixation pin–cast application was performed on the affected limb of all 4 patients. The ostectomy healed with only minor complications (disuse osteopenia distal to the transfixation pins [n = 4] and cast sores ) that were easily resolved with no long-term adverse effects. Duration of follow-up for the 4 patients ranged from 6 to 17 months, and the owners reported satisfactory ambulation with no (n = 2) or only mild (2) residual lameness in the affected limb.
Results suggested that a closing wedge ostectomy with transfixation pin–cast stabilization is an alternative for management of angular limb deformities of the metatarsophalangeal region in cattle. Such treatment improved the quality of life for all 4 patients. However, 2 of the 4 patients had congenital deformities confirmed to be heritable. There are ethical concerns associated with treating animals with heritable disorders, and exhibition and breeding of such animals should be avoided.
To evaluate a novel prosthesis technique for extracapsular stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)–deficient stifle joints in adult cattle.
13 cadaveric bovine stifle joint specimens.
In the first of 3 study phases, the most isometric points on the distal aspect of the femur (distal femur) and proximal aspect of the tibia (proximal tibia) were determined from measurements obtained from lateromedial radiographs of a stifle joint specimen maintained at angles of 135°, 90°, 65°, and 35°. During phase 2, 800-lb-test monofilament nylon leader line was cut into 73-cm-long segments. Each segment was secured in a loop by use of 2, 3, or 4 crimping sleeves such that there were 12 replicates for each construct. Each loop was distracted to failure at a constant rate of 1 mm/s. Mean force at failure and elongation and mode of failure were compared among the 3 constructs. During phase 3, bone tunnels were created in the distal femur and proximal tibia at the isometric points identified during phase 1 in each of 12 CCL-deficient stifle joint specimens. The 3-sleeve construct was applied to each specimen. Specimens were distracted to failure at a constant rate of 1 mm/s.
Among the 3 constructs evaluated, the 3-sleeve construct was considered optimal in terms of strength and amount of foreign material. In phase 3, all replicates failed because of suture slippage.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Use of 800-lb-test monofilament nylon leader line as a prosthesis might be a viable alternative for extracapsular stabilization of CCL-deficient stifle joints in adult cattle. Further in vivo studies are necessary.
To improve upon the toggle-pin implant construction and develop a repeatable surgical technique to achieve coxofemoral stabilization in mature cattle.
9 adult bovine cadaveric coxofemoral joints, 8 bovine femurs, 2 beef calf cadavers.
Ultimate tensile strength and elongation at failure were measured for the native ligament of the head of the femur (LOHOF) harvested up to 48 hours after death, and the prosthetic prototype utilizing stainless-steel cable and prosthetic prototype utilizing nylon leader line were compared. Bovine femurs were utilized to locate the ideal and repeatable trajectory of the prosthetic ligament to exit at the origin of the LOHOF. Using fluoroscopy, thawed calf cadavers with radiopaque markers placed at sites of origin and insertion of the LOHOF were positioned to assess limb angle to maximize joint isometry resulting in the ideal placement of the LOHOF prosthesis. The study was performed between February 1, 2020, and December 1, 2021.
The stainless-steel prototype had a significantly higher ultimate tensile strength and significantly decreased elongation at failure when compared to the LOHOF, while the nylon-based prototype had significantly decreased tensile strength and elongation at failure compared to the LOHOF. Therefore, neither prototypes were biomechanically similar to LOHOF.
The stainless-steel prosthetic prototype shows promise to provide superior stabilization to the luxated coxofemoral joint.
To investigate the chondroprotective effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), ampicillin-sulbactam (AmpS), or PRP combined with AmpS (PRP+AmpS) in an in vitro chondrocyte explant model of bovine Staphylococcus aureus–induced septic arthritis.
Autologous PRP and cartilage explants obtained from 6 healthy, adult, nonlactating Jersey-crossbred cows.
Autologous PRP was prepared prior to euthanasia using an optimized double centrifugation protocol. Cartilage explants collected from grossly normal stifle joints were incubated in synovial fluid (SF) alone, S aureus–inoculated SF (SA), or SA supplemented with PRP (25% culture medium volume), AmpS (2 mg/mL), or both PRP (25% culture medium volume) and AmpS (2 mg/mL; PRP+AmpS) for 24 hours. The metabolic activity, percentage of dead cells, and glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage explants were measured with a resazurin-based assay, live-dead cell staining, and dimethylmethylene blue assay, respectively. Treatment effects were assessed relative to the findings for cartilage explants incubated in SF alone.
Application of PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments significantly reduced S aureus–induced chondrocyte death (ie, increased metabolic activity and cell viability staining) in cartilage explants, compared with untreated controls. There were no significant differences in chondrocyte death among explants treated with PRP, AmpS, or PRP+AmpS.
In this in vitro explant model of S aureus–induced septic arthritis, PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments mitigated chondrocyte death. Additional work to confirm the efficacy of PRP with bacteria commonly associated with clinical septic arthritis in cattle as well as in vivo evaluation is warranted.
To describe rates of surgical complications, survival, and return to breeding soundness following herniorrhaphy for bulls with inguinal hernias.
13 sexually mature bulls with acquired inguinal hernias.
Medical record databases of 3 veterinary teaching hospitals were searched to identify records of bulls that underwent herniorrhaphy for correction of an inguinal hernia from 2005 to 2017. Information extracted from the medical records included breed, age, duration and side of the hernia, surgical procedure details, postoperative complications, and information regarding subsequent fertility.
All 13 bulls had a left inguinal hernia and were anesthetized and underwent herniorrhaphy via an inguinal approach. The left testicle was removed during the surgical procedure in 2 bulls. Nylon or polypropylene mesh secured with size-5 polyester suture was used to facilitate inguinal ring closure in 2 bulls. The inguinal ring was closed with size-5 or size-2 polyester suture in the remaining bulls. Postoperative complications included hernia recurrence (n = 4), excessive scrotal swelling (3), and transient radial nerve paralysis (1). Follow-up information was available for 7 bulls. All 7 bulls had impregnated cows or heifers following surgery, including 1 bull that had hernia recurrence and underwent unilateral castration during the second herniorrhaphy.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Inguinal herniorrhaphy with or without mesh was a safe and effective procedure for inguinal hernia repair in bulls and was associated with a good prognosis for subsequent fertility. However, sparing the ipsilateral testicle during the herniorrhaphy procedure might increase the risk for hernia recurrence.