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Objective

To characterize diagnostic results, treatment, and outcome of dogs with blastomycosis during a 15-year period in Louisiana.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

115 dogs with blastomycosis.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for dogs with blastomycosis examined between 1980 and 1995. Additional data were collected from the state veterinary diagnostic laboratory, via telephone interviews of owners, and by use of a random survey of the hospital population.

Results

Blastomycosis was detected mainly in young, large-breed dogs. Proximity to a body of water was a significant risk factor for affected dogs. Most dogs were affected in January and August through October. Clinical signs and results of physical examination reflected the multisystemic nature of the disease. Commonly affected systems included the respiratory tract and lymphatic, ocular, and cutaneous systems. Nodular interstitial and interstitial patterns were common findings on thoracic radiographs. Cytologic examination was successful in identifying organisms in samples from vitreous, skin, and lymph nodes. Similar results were achieved for dogs treated with a combination of amphotericin B and ketoconazole, compared with dogs treated with itraconazole.

Clinical Implications

Results of this study should assist veterinarians with the recognition and management of blastomycosis in dogs. Blastomycosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for large-breed dogs that live close to a body of water in areas in which the disease is endemic or in dogs with a history of being transported to endemic areas that subsequently develop signs of pulmonary, ocular, lymphatic, or cutaneous disease. Treatment with itraconazole was as effective as treatment with a combination of amphotericin B and ketoconazole. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998;213:658-664)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine urinary orotic acid (OA) conentration and evaluate the urinary OA-to-creatinine ratio (OACR) in cats with hepatic lipidosis (HL).

Animals

20 cats with HL and 20 clinically normal cats.

Procedure

Hepatic lipidosis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, results of serum biochemical analyses, exclusion of other concurrent illness, and cytologic or histologic evaluation of liver biopsy specimens. Urine samples were collected from each cat and frozen at −20 C until assayed. Urine creatinine concentrations were determined, using an alkaline picrate method followed by spectrophotometric assay. Urine OA concentration was determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography. Minimum amount of detectable OA in feline urine was 1 µg/ml. Because of small interfering peaks near the base of the OA peak, the minimum quantifiable concentration of OA was determined to be 5 pg/ml. Urinary OACR was compared in both groups of cats.

Results

Differences in urinary OACR were not detected between clinically normal cats and cats with HL. Peaks were not detected for urinary OA in any of the 20 clinically normal cats. Of the 20 HL cats, 14 did not have detectable peaks for urinary OA. Of the 6 HL cats that had detectable urinary OA peaks, 3 had values of < 5 µg/ml.

Conclusions

Apparently, OACR does not increase significantly in cats with HL.

Clinical Relevance

Urinary OACR is not a useful diagnostic test for HL in cats. (Am J Vet Res 1999; 60:753–754)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

An indirect fluorescent antibody test was used to serologically survey Greyhounds from 10 kennels that are part of the racing Greyhound industry in Florida. Age of dogs ranged from 11 months to 11 years. Additionally, 50 adult non-Greyhound pet dogs were consecutively surveyed. Of 393 Greyhounds tested, 181 (46%) were seropositive for babesiosis; pet dogs were seronegative. Slightly higher percentage of seropositive males than females was observed, but this difference was only significant (P < 0.01) in the 2- to 5-year age class. Male dogs <2 years old had significantly (P < 0.01) lower seroprevalence than did male dogs >2 years old. All 46 Greyhounds that were actively racing at the time of sample collection were seronegative.

Dogs were classified into 2 groups on the basis of whether the kennel owner had sought veterinary attention for anemic pups. The 5 kennel owners that had sought veterinary attention (group A) had significantly (P < 0.01) higher seroprevalence (78.5%), compared with the 5 that had not sought veterinary attention (group B; 23.0%).

Seroprevalence of babesiosis in Greyhounds in Florida was comparable to that reported in a limited survey of other southeastern states. It appears to be higher than that in the pet population. Breeding kennels in Florida and other southeastern states from which anemic pups originate should be screened for babesiosis.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate orotic acid (OA) as a possible etiologic factor in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (HL).

Animals

20 clinically normal adult female cats.

Procedure

Cats were fed a control diet or a diet containing less protein. On day 1 of the control period, blood, urine, and liver biopsy specimens were obtained. Each cat was given an oral dose of water daily. On days 8, 15, and 22, blood and urine specimens were collected as on day 1. On day 29, liver, blood, and urine samples were obtained as on day 1. After a resting period of 30 to 60 days, cats were treated with orotic acid. Serum biochemical analyses, urinary OA-to-creatinine ratios, and liver biopsy specimens were evaluated. Cats were given OA orally (suspension or capsules) for 29 days. Sample collection and data obtained were identical to those described for the control period.

Results

Urinary OA-to-creatinine ratios were significantly higher in all treated cats, but ratios were significantly higher in those receiving OA in capsules than in those receiving OA in suspension. Diet or treatment did not alter hepatic biochemical or histologic variables significantly. However, 7 cats given the highest dose of OA in capsules developed azotemia, urolithiasis, and renal changes.

Conclusions

Most concentrations of OA used in this study did not induce HL in cats during a 29-day period, but the highest dosage used did result in renal disease.

Clinical Relevance

Orotic acid does not appear to be involved in the genesis of HL in cats. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:749–752)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the biochemical, functional, and histopathologic changes associated with lomustine-induced liver injury in dogs.

ANIMALS

I0 healthy purpose-bred sexually intact female hounds.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive lomustine (approx 75 mg/m2, PO, q 21 d for 5 doses) alone (n = 5) or with prednisone (approx 1.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 12 weeks; 5). For each dog, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, liver function testing, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic examination of the liver with acquisition of liver biopsy specimens were performed before and at predetermined times during and after lomustine administration. Results were compared between dogs that did and did not receive prednisone.

RESULTS

7 of the I0 dogs developed clinical signs of liver failure. For all dogs, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bile acid concentrations, and liver histologic score increased and hepatic reduced glutathione content decreased over time. Peak serum ALT (r = 0.79) and ALP (r = 0.90) activities and bile acid concentration (r = 0.68) were positively correlated with the final histologic score. Prednisone did not appear to have a protective effect on histologic score.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In dogs, liver enzyme activities, particularly ALT and ALP activities, should be closely monitored during lomustine treatment and acute increases in those activities may warrant discontinuation of lomustine to mitigate liver injury. Nonspecific ultrasonographic findings and abnormal increases in liver function tests were not detected until the onset of clinical liver failure. Glutathione depletion may have a role in lomustine-induced hepatopathy and warrants further investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research