Objective—To establish reference range values for
synovial fluid from clinically normal New World
Animals—15 llamas and 15 alpacas.
Procedure—Llamas and alpacas were anesthetized
with an IM injection of a xylazine hydrochloride, butorphanol
tartrate, and ketamine hydrochloride combination.
Synovial fluid (1 to 2 ml) was obtained by aseptic
arthrocentesis from the radiocarpal and tarsocrural
joints. Synovial fluid evaluation included determination
of total nucleated cell count (NCC), absolute
number and percentage of polymorphonuclear (PMN)
and mononuclear leukocytes, total protein, and specific
Results—Synovial fluid evaluation revealed a total
NCC of 100 to 1,400 cells/μl (mean ± SD, 394.8 ±
356.2 cells/μl; 95% confidence interval [CI], 295.2 to
494.6 cells/μl). Mononuclear leukocytes were the predominant
cell type with lymphocytes, composing 50
to 90% (mean, 75.6 ± 17.2%; 95% CI, 70.8 to 80.4%)
of the mononuclear leukocytes. Approximately 0 to
12% (mean, 1.3 ± 2.9%; 95% CI, 0.49 to 2.11%) of
the cells were PMN leukocytes. Total protein concentrations
ranged from 2.0 to 3.8 g/dl (mean, 2.54 ±
0.29 g/dl; 95% CI, 2.46 to 2.62 g/dl); the specific gravity
ranged between 1.010 and 1.026 (mean, 1.017 ±
0.003; 95% CI, 1.016 to 1.018).
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—In llamas and
alpacas, significant differences do not exist between
species or between limbs (left vs right) or joints
(radiocarpal vs tarsocrural) for synovial fluid values.
Total NCC and absolute number and percentage of
PMN and mononuclear leukocyte are similar to those
of other ruminants and horses. However, synovial
fluid total protein concentrations in New World
camelids are high, compared with other domestic
species. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:576–578)
Objective—To determine sensitivity and specificity of
cytologic examination used in a clinical setting.
Animals—216 dogs, 44 cats, 4 horses, 2 ferrets, 1
llama, 1 rat, and 1 mouse.
Procedure—Records were reviewed of cases in
which a cytologic diagnosis was followed by a surgical
biopsy or postmortem examination within 3 days
with subsequent histopathologic diagnosis.
Diagnoses were compared for agreement at various
levels, including complete agreement, partial agreement,
no agreement, or no comparison possible
because of insufficient or incorrect cytologic specimen.
Levels of agreement were compared for different
categories of lesions, including neoplastic, inflammatory,
dysplastic-hyperplastic-other, and normal tissue.
Additionally, levels of agreement for neoplastic
lesions were categorized with regard to cell type,
degree of malignancy, and location. Sensitivity and
specificity of cytologic examination were calculated.
Results—At the level of general agreement (complete
and partial agreement), the sensitivity of cytologic
examination ranged from 33.3 to 66.1%,
depending on the location of the lesion. Cytologic
examination was most accurate when used to diagnose
cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions and least
accurate for diagnosis of liver lesions. Cytologic
examination was most effective in diagnosis of neoplastic
disease and least effective in diagnosis of dysplastic
or hyperplastic conditions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cytologic
examination is a valuable diagnostic tool, although our
results indicated lower accuracy than previously
reported. False-negative results (missing a diagnosis)
were far more common than false-positive results
(categorizing a healthy animal as diseased); therefore,
if the clinical index of suspicion is high, cytologic
examination should be repeated or another technique
should be selected to rule out the suspected condition.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:964–967)
Objective—To study the musculoskeletal development
of Great Dane puppies fed various dietary concentrations
of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in
fixed ratio by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
(DEXA), determination of serum insulin-like growth
factor I and parathyroid hormone concentrations,
radiography, and blood chemistry analysis results.
Animals—32 purebred Great Dane puppies from 4 litters.
Procedure—At weaning, puppies were assigned randomly
to 1 of 3 diets. Blood was collected for biochemical
analyses and hormone assays, and radiography
and DEXA were performed through 18 months of
age. Changes in body weight, bone mineral content, fat
tissue weight, lean mass, result of serum biochemical
analyses, hormonal concentrations, and radius lengths
were analyzed through 18 months of age.
Results—Bone mineral content of puppies correlated
positively with Ca and P content of the diets fed.
Significant differences between groups in bone mineral
content, lean mass, and body fat were apparent
early. The disparity among groups increased until 6
months of age and then declined until body composition
was no longer different at 12 months of age.
Accretion rates for skeletal mineral content, fat, and
lean tissue differed from each other and by diet group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ca and P concentrations
in the diet of young Great Dane puppies
are rapidly reflected in the bone mineral content of
the puppies until 5 to 6 months of age, after which
hormonal regulation adjusts absorption and excretion
of these minerals. Appropriate Ca and P concentrations
in diets are important in young puppies < 6
months of age. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1036–1047)