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SUMMARY

Naturally acquired gram-negative bacterial intramammary infections (n= 160) were studied in 99 cows over a 2-year period. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Serratia spp, Enterobacter spp, and unidentified gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 28.8, 39.4, 9.4, 5.0, and 11.2%, respectively, of infected mammary glands. A majority (61%) of intramammary infections were first detected during the nonlactating period. Gram-negative bacteria isolated during the first half of the nonlactating period were predominantly Klebsiella spp, Serratia spp, and Enterobacter spp. Onset of E coli intramammary infections was more prevalent during the second half of the nonlactating period and during the first 7 days of lactation. The majority (59%) of infections were < 28 days in duration, but Klebsiella spp and Serratia spp infections were of significantly (P < 0.05) greater duration than infections with E coli. The greatest percentage (47%) of gram-negative bacterial intramammary infections were first detected during the summer.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

A murine IgM monoclonal antibody, which recognizes dog erythrocyte antigen (dea) 1.1, has been produced. The antibody correctly identified canine rbc possessing dea 1.1 in a panel of rbc typed by an independent laboratory. Reactivity of the monoclonal antibody was compared with canine anti-dea 1.1 antiserum with 163 rbc samples from 145 dogs. Results of agglutination tests with the 2 reagents were in agreement for all samples. A card agglutination test that uses the monoclonal antibody with blood is described. A monoclonal antibody-based test should facilitate blood typing for dea 1.1 in clinical practice.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

In this preliminary investigation, various hematologic variables potentially influential in determining the degree of blood viscosity were evaluated in 10 Thoroughbred horses subjected to competitive acute running exercise. Following completion of sprints over a distance of 1.25 miles, mean percent (± sd) increases in pcv (38.3 ± 12.9%), rbc (47.8 ± 15.3%), and rouleaux index (232.7 ± 176.8%) were recognized. Simultaneous increases in total plasma protein (28.3 ± 5.31%), serum albumin (26.7 ± 6.80%), α1-globulin (60.0 ± 49.0%), α2-globulin (25.5 ± 27.9%), β1-globulin (46.7 ± 21.1%), (32-globulin (35.0 ± 50.6%), γ1- and 2-globulins (38.7 ± 29.6%), and plasma fibrinogen (12.5 ± 10.4%) concentrations increased simultaneously. Horses also had consistent decreases in albumin:globulin ratio (- 10.0 ± 7.43%). Alterations in these hematologic values after acute running exercise in Thoroughbred horses accompanied increases in serum (69.3 ± 39.7%), plasma (39.7 ± 11.9%), and blood (134.7 ± 55.3%) viscosity.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 9-month-old miniature Hereford heifer was evaluated for a mass on the right inferior eyelid that had progressed in size over 3 months.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Physical examination revealed a firm, ulcerated, pedunculated mass on the right inferior eyelid that extended from the medial quarter to beyond the lateral canthus of the eye. The base of the mass measured 7.4 × 6.7 cm, and the dorsal margin of the base of the mass was approximately 3 mm ventral to the inferior eyelid margin. Histologic evaluation of incisional biopsy specimens from the mass was consistent with fibrosarcoma.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The mass was surgically resected with care taken to preserve the eyelid margin. The resulting 10 × 8.5-cm surgical wound was treated with adjunct CO2 laser therapy and closed by primary closure at its medial and central aspects and placement of a 4.6 × 2.6-cm lyophilized equine amnion multilayer graft and 2 sheets of 4-ply porcine small intestinal submucosa at its lateral aspect. The grafts were kept moist by alternating topical antimicrobial and artificial tear ointments for 3 weeks. The wound healed without complications, resulting in a functional and aesthetically pleasing outcome despite the development of moderate ectropion at the lateral aspect of the inferior eyelid.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that a combination of extracellular matrix scaffolds may be an alternative to extensive skin flaps for management of large dermal wounds, particularly wounds resulting from blepharoplasty where preservation of an eyelid margin is desired.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To provide an updated evaluation of the efficacy and safety of sometribove zinc suspension (rbST-Zn), a form of recombinant bovine somatotropin, in lactating dairy cows.

Design—Meta-analysis.

Sample—26 studies published in peer-reviewed journals or reviewed by a regulatory agency.

Procedures—To be included, a study had to involve the use of the rbST-Zn formulation available to US producers in accordance with the label instructions for treatment initiation (57 to 70 days postpartum), dose (500 mg, q 14 d), and route (SC).

Results—For cows treated with rbST-Zn, mean milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, fat, and protein yields were increased by 4.00, 4.04, 0.144, and 0.137 kg/d (8.8, 8.89, 0.32, and 0.30 lb/d), respectively; however, the concentration of milk components did not change. Pregnancy proportion for the first 2 breeding cycles was increased by 5.4%, and pregnancy proportion for the duration of the trial was reduced by 5.5% for rbST-Zn–treated cows, compared with proportions for untreated cows. Mean body condition score (1 to 5 scale) was reduced by 0.06 points during the period of rbST-Zn use for treated cows. Administration of rbST-Zn had no effect on milk somatic cell count, the number of days to pregnancy, or inseminations per pregnancy; rates of fetal loss, twins, cystic ovaries, clinical lameness, lameness lesions, or traumatic lesions of the integumentary system; and odds of clinical mastitis or culling.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that rbST-Zn administration to dairy cows effectively increases milk production with no adverse effects on cow health and well-being.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether Mycobacterium bovis remains viable in ensiled forages.

SAMPLE Alfalfa, mixed mostly grass, and corn silages.

PROCEDURES For each of 10 sampling days, six 250-g replicate samples of each feedstuff were created and placed in a film pouch that could be vacuum sealed to simulate the ensiling process. Within each set of replicate samples, 4 were inoculated with 10 mL of mycobacterial liquid culture medium containing viable M bovis and 2 were inoculated with 10 mL of sterile mycobacterial liquid culture medium (controls) on day 0. Pouches were vacuum sealed and stored in the dark at room temperature. On the designated sampling day, 1 control pouch was submitted for forage analysis, and the other pouches were opened, and forage samples were obtained for M bovis culture and analysis with a PCR assay immediately and 24 hours later.

RESULTS None of the control samples had positive M bovis culture or PCR assay results. Among M bovis-inoculated samples, the organism was not cultured from alfalfa and corn silage for > 2 days but was cultured from mixed mostly grass silage for 28 days after inoculation and ensiling initiation. Mycobacterium bovis DNA was detected by PCR assay in samples of all 3 feedstuffs throughout the 112-day observation period.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that properly ensiled forages would be an unlikely source for M bovis transmission to cattle. Further research is necessary to determine whether ensiling kills M bovis or forces it to become dormant and, if the latter, elucidate the conditions that cause it to revert to an infectious state.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research