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Objective—To determine the effect of exogenous growth hormone or somatostatin on chemotherapeutic efficacy in athymic (nude) rats with osteosarcoma. Animals—66 female athymic rats.

Procedure—Osteosarcoma was induced at an intratibial site. Rats were randomly allotted to 6 treatment groups. Rats were treated with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution alone, platinum, diammine [1,1-cyclobutane dicaboxylato (2-)-0,0']-(SP-4-2) (CBDCA; ie, carboplatin) plus saline solution, somatostatin alone, somatostatin plus CBDCA, growth hormone alone, or growth hormone plus CBDCA. Variables measured included estimated WBC count and percentage of neutrophils, plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), body weight, tumor volume, weight of primary tumor, survival time, and distant metastasis at time of death.

Results—Tumors formed at the injection sites in all rats. Treatment with growth hormone increased, and treatment with somatostatin decreased, plasma IGF-I concentration. Treatment with growth hormone or somatostatin altered CBDCA efficacy, as determined by evaluation of mean and median survival times. Metastatic pulmonary disease developed in 63 of 64 rats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The technique used here reliably induced local osteosarcomas and metastatic pulmonary disease. Treatment with growth hormone and CBDCA or somatostatin may improve chemotherapeutic efficacy without increasing toxic effects.

Implications for Human Medicine—Results reported here may be useful in the study of osteosarcoma in humans. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:646–650)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease was the diagnosis for 58 dogs and 26 cats, with signs of persistent gastroenteritis, failed responses to dietary trials, and histologic evidence of cellular infiltrates unrelated to other causes of gastrointestinal tract inflammation. Clinical signs of large intestinal dysfunction, watery diarrhea, vomiting, and anorexia with weight loss were common. Nonspecific hematologic, biochemical, and radiographic abnormalities frequently were observed. Mucosal biopsy specimens, obtained endoscopically, were histologically evaluated for severity of mucosal epithelial damage. Mucosal erythema, friability, enhanced granularity, and ulceration or erosion were the predominant endoscopic lesions. Inflammatory bowel disease lesions of moderate severity predominated in the stomach, duodenum, and colon. Lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates were limited to the lamina propria in biopsy specimens from all regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Inflammatory bowel disease commonly is associated with chronic gastroenteritis in dogs and cats.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To investigate the distribution of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells in the villi of duodenal mucosa from healthy dogs and from dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or gastroenteritis.


Case-control study.


28 dogs, grouped according to clinical and histologic criteria: 11 dogs with IBD, 8 dogs with nonspecific gastroenteritis, and 9 healthy dogs.


Endoscopic biopsy specimens of duodenal mucosa from each dog were stained specifically for IgA and IgG heavy chains and pan T-cell (CD3) antigen, using immunoperoxidase techniques. Morphometric analysis, performed via an image-analysis system, was used to count IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells within paired contiguous villi from each dog.


T cells were the predominant immune cell type in all groups of dogs. Significant differences in the villus distribution of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells were not observed. Healthy dogs had significantly higher T-cell counts than had dogs with IBD or gastroenteritis. Dogs with nonspecific gastroenteritis had a significantly higher concentration of IgA-containing cells than the other groups of dogs had. Significant group differences for IgG-containing cells also were evident, with dogs with IBD having the lowest cell counts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

High concentrations of IgA- and IgG-containing cells and T cells in the villus lamina propria cannot be reliably used to distinguish IBD from other intestinal disorders in dogs. Evaluation of T cells may be the most discriminatory method for differentiating dogs with IBD from clinically normal dogs via examination of intestinal biopsy specimens. (Am J Vet Res 1996; 57:697–704)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Case Description—A 7-year-old Siberian Husky-type dog with heterochromia irides was evaluated because of signs of pain associated with the right eye.

Clinical Findings—Unilateral panuveitis, iris bombé, and secondary glaucoma were detected in the right eye. Tear production was low bilaterally. Facial and truncal poliosis and vitiligo were also evident; skin biopsy specimens were obtained from the nasal planum. Uveodermatologic syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of histopathologic findings of a lichenoid interface dermatitis and pigmentary incontinence within the dermis. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on skin samples retrospectively, and findings were inconclusive.

Treatment and Outcome—Treatment involved topical (ocular) and oral administration of corticosteroids, oral administration of azathioprine, and topical (ocular) administration of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and a lacrimostimulant. The secondary glaucoma was refractory to treatment, and the right eye was enucleated. Uveodermatologic syndrome was confirmed via histologic examination of ocular tissues. The left eye remained free of inflammation 16 months after the initial diagnosis. The periocular skin and skin of the nose partially regained pigment, but the hair did not.

Clinical Relevance—Some breeds in which uveodermatologic syndrome has been reported (eg, Siberian Huskies, Old English Sheepdogs, Australian Shepherds, and Shetland Sheepdogs) often have heterochromia irides. This case highlights the fact that dogs with asymmetric uveal pigmentation may have unilateral ocular changes; therefore, uveodermatologic syndrome should not be excluded as a differential diagnosis on the basis of unilateral clinical signs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association