CASE DESCRIPTION A 5-year-old 35.8-kg (78.8-lb) neutered male Labrador Retriever was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge associated with a fungal infection. The dog had previously been prescribed antimicrobials and antifungal treatment, but owner compliance was lacking.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, mild ulceration of the left nasal commissure, and hyperkeratosis of the dorsal nasal planum were present. Computed tomography revealed destruction of the intranasal structures, focal lysis of the cribriform plate, and invasion of a soft-tissue mass into the frontal cortex. Rhinoscopy revealed a large pale mass in the caudal aspect of the right nasal passage; a biopsy sample was consistent with Aspergillus sp on histologic evaluation.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Initial treatment included medical management with an antifungal agent. Approximately 3 months later, a large fungal granuloma in the right frontal sinus was removed and debridement was performed via dorsal rhinotomy. One month after surgery, the dog was evaluated for signs of cervical pain and altered mentation. An MRI and CSF analysis were performed; diagnoses of ventricular pneumocephalus, subarachnoid pneumorrhachis, and meningoencephalitis were made. Management included oxygen therapy and administration of antimicrobials, analgesics, and antifungal medications. On follow-up 9 months after initial evaluation, neurologic deficits were reportedly resolved, and the dog was doing well.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This report emphasizes the importance of prompt, appropriate treatment of fungal rhinitis in dogs. Although rare, pneumocephalus and pneumorrhachis should be included as differential diagnoses for neurologic signs following treatment for this condition. In this dog, the complications were not considered severe and improved over time with supportive care.
Objective—To evaluate use of computed tomography (CT) of the lungs, compared with conventional radiography, for detection of blebs and bullae associated with spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—12 dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information was collected that included signalment, body weight, initial owner complaint, laboratory findings, radiographic findings, CT findings, medical and surgical treatment, histologic findings, complications, duration of hospitalization, and final outcome.
Results—Radiographs were excellent for identifying pneumothorax (sensitivity, 100%) but poor for identifying the underlying cause (bullae or blebs); these were identified in radiographs of only 2 of 12 dogs. Computed tomography allowed identification of bullae or blebs in 9 of 12 dogs. Ten of the 12 dogs were treated via surgery, and 17 affected lung lobes were identified. Four of the 17 affected lobes were identified via radiography. Thirteen of the 17 affected lobes were identified via CT; however, 1 lobe was incorrectly identified as the right caudal lobe instead of the right cranial lobe.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that CT is better than radiography for identifying the underlying causes of spontaneous pneumothorax.
Objective—To describe clinical signs and results of treatment in cats with patellar luxation.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—42 cats in which patellar luxation had been diagnosed on the basis of results of palpation of the stifle joints.
Procedures—Degree of luxation was graded on a scale from 1 to 4, and severity of lameness was graded on a scale from 0 to 5. Radiographs of stifle joints were evaluated for signs of osteoarthritis. Long-term function was classified as poor, fair, good, or excellent.
Results—34 cats had bilateral luxation and 8 had unilateral luxation. Only 7 (17%) cats had a history of trauma. Mean age of the cats was 3.3 years, and mean weight was 4.26 kg (9.4 lb); 26 (62%) were domestic shorthairs. Seventy-three of the 76 (95%) affected joints had medial patellar luxation. Luxation grades could be assigned to 65 joints, with grade 2 (30 joints) and 3 (22 joints) luxation being most common. Lameness grades could be assigned to 73 joints, with grade 1 lameness (27 joints) most common. Outcome was excellent for 8 of 17 joints treated without surgery and for 23 of 35 joints treated surgically. Complications attributable to surgery were reported in 8 cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Patellar luxation should be considered as a cause of hind limb lameness in cats. Low-grade luxation can be associated with lameness of the same severity as high-grade luxation. Surgical correction of patellar luxation in cats with grade 2 or 3 lameness can result in a favorable outcome.