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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate, under field conditions, the effects of a commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine on mortality rate and growth performance in a herd infected with PCV2 that had a history of porcine circovirus disease.

Design—Randomized controlled clinical trial.

Animals—485 commercial, cross-bred, growing pigs.

Procedures—Prior to weaning, pigs were randomly assigned within litter to a vaccination or unvaccinated control group. Pigs in the vaccination group were given a commercial PCV2 vaccine at weaning and 3 weeks later. Mortality rate was recorded, and pigs were weighed prior to vaccination, when moved from the nursery, and prior to marketing. Infection status was assessed by serologic testing and detection of viral DNA in serum.

Results—Compared with control pigs, pigs vaccinated against PCV2 had a significantly lower mortality rate during the finishing phase, significantly higher average daily gain during the finishing phase, and significantly lower likelihood of being lightweight at the time of marketing. For vaccinated pigs, overall mortality rate was reduced by 50% and average daily gain during the finishing period was increased by 9.3%. At the time of marketing, vaccinated pigs weighed an average of 8.8 kg (19.4 lb) more than control pigs, without any difference in days to marketing. Serum PCV2 antibody titers increased in control pigs, and PCV2 DNA was detected, indicating active PCV2 infection.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that vaccination against PCV2 was effective at reducing mortality rate and improving growth performance among pigs in a herd infected with PCV2.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe rates of surgical complications, survival, and return to breeding soundness following herniorrhaphy for bulls with inguinal hernias.


13 sexually mature bulls with acquired inguinal hernias.


Medical record databases of 3 veterinary teaching hospitals were searched to identify records of bulls that underwent herniorrhaphy for correction of an inguinal hernia from 2005 to 2017. Information extracted from the medical records included breed, age, duration and side of the hernia, surgical procedure details, postoperative complications, and information regarding subsequent fertility.


All 13 bulls had a left inguinal hernia and were anesthetized and underwent herniorrhaphy via an inguinal approach. The left testicle was removed during the surgical procedure in 2 bulls. Nylon or polypropylene mesh secured with size-5 polyester suture was used to facilitate inguinal ring closure in 2 bulls. The inguinal ring was closed with size-5 or size-2 polyester suture in the remaining bulls. Postoperative complications included hernia recurrence (n = 4), excessive scrotal swelling (3), and transient radial nerve paralysis (1). Follow-up information was available for 7 bulls. All 7 bulls had impregnated cows or heifers following surgery, including 1 bull that had hernia recurrence and underwent unilateral castration during the second herniorrhaphy.


Inguinal herniorrhaphy with or without mesh was a safe and effective procedure for inguinal hernia repair in bulls and was associated with a good prognosis for subsequent fertility. However, sparing the ipsilateral testicle during the herniorrhaphy procedure might increase the risk for hernia recurrence.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To estimate reliability of interpretation of neurologic examination findings for localization of vestibular dysfunction in dogs.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 496 dogs that underwent MRI of the head for diagnosis of a neurologic problem between September 2011 and September 2015.

PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed and data collected regarding signalment and neurologic examination, MRI, and CSF findings. Independent observers interpreted the findings, and agreement was assessed for a subset of dogs. Distributions of variables were compared between dogs with and without a neurologic findings–based interpretation of vestibular disease.

RESULTS 37% (185/496) of dogs had signs of vestibular dysfunction, of which 82% (151/185) had MRI abnormalities. In 73% (110/151) of dogs with MRI abnormalities, lesions involved central vestibular structures, and in 19% (29/151), lesions involved peripheral vestibular structures. On the basis of neurologic findings interpretation, 86% (160/185) of dogs were classified as having central vestibular dysfunction, and 61% (98/160) of these had an MRI-identified central vestibular lesion. Agreement among 3 independent observers was good (κ = 0.72) regarding use of neurologic examination findings to diagnose central versus peripheral vestibular dysfunction and very good (κ = 0.85) regarding use of MRI to diagnose peripheral vestibular lesions. Despite this agreement, only 29% (7/24) of dogs with a consensus clinical interpretation of peripheral vestibular dysfunction had MRI-identified peripheral lesions.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although interobserver agreement was good for distinguishing central from peripheral vestibular dysfunction in dogs through interpretation of neurologic examination findings, this interpretation did not agree with the MRI-based diagnosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association