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Objective

To determine effect of time of sample collection on serum thyrotropin (canine thyroid-stimulating hormone [cTSH]) concentrations in euthyroid and hypothyroid dogs.

Design

Prospective study.

Animals

6 healthy adult euthyroid dogs, 6 adult Beagles with 131iodine-induced hypothyroidism before and during administration of levothyroxine sodium, and 6 adult dogs with naturally developing hypothyroidism.

Procedure

Healthy euthyroid dogs were identified. Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 131sodium iodide and confirmed by thyroid-stimulating hormone testing. These dogs then received levothyroxine for 30 days. Naturally developing hypothyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, low serum thyroxine (T 4) concentrations, and high cTSH concentrations or abnormal results on a thyrotropin-releasing hormone response test. Samples for measurement of cTSH and T4 concentrations were obtained at 2-hour intervals from 8 AM to 8 pm.

Results

Mean (± SD) serum cTSH concentrations for healthy dogs, dogs with induced hypothyroidism before and during treatment, and dogs with naturally developing hypothyroidism were 0.11 ± 0.08, 3.31 ± 1.30, 0.08 ± 0.07, and 0.55 ± 0.27 ng/ml, respectively. Diurnal variation in cTSH concentrations was not detected. Clinically important random fluctuations in cTSH concentrations were detected for dogs with naturally developing hypothyroidism.

Clinical Implications

Sample collection time does not appear to predictably influence cTSH concentrations; however, dogs with naturally developing hypothyroidism may have random fluctuations in cTSH concentrations. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:1572–1575)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Objective

To determine whether the “spot” method of determining fractional excretion (FE) of electrolytes in cats is accurate.

Animals

5 clinically normal young adult female cats.

Procedure

Cats were acclimated to metabolism cages, and 2 consecutive 72-hour collections of urine were made to determine FE of total calcium, potassium, total magnesium, sodium, and phosphorus by conventional methods, using endogenous creatinine clearance as an estimate of glomerular filtration rate. During collections, small samples of urine were obtained by cystocentesis at 8 am, 3 pm, and 9 pm for determination of FE of the electrolytes by use of the “spot” method.

Results

Values from “spot” determinations were highly variable, compared with 72-hour values, with a high percentage falling outside the range of mean ± 2 SD for 72-hour FE values.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance

The “spot” method for determining FE is not precise, and if used, caution and judgement should be exercised in interpretation of the results. (Am J Vet Res 1997;58:1184–1187)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Five dogs with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 of which had been treated with bone marrow transplantation (bmt), were evaluated for 20 months with electrocardiography, thoracic radiography, and M-mode and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Treated and untreated (control) dogs had widened P waves on ecg. Thoracic radiographs remained normal for all dogs throughout the study. Thickening of the mitral valve was observed on echocardiograms of dogs in both groups, but the untreated dogs appeared to have thicker valves. Concentrations of glycosaminoglycans in the mitral valves and myocardium were higher in control dogs than in treated dogs. Markedly large aortic root diameters were observed on echocardiograms in both untreated dogs, but aortic root diameters remained normal in treated dogs. Echocardiography, but not electrocardiography, was useful in monitoring heart enlargement in each dog. Dogs treated with bmt generally had less-severe cardiac changes and slower disease progression than control dogs.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective—

To validate a new immunoradiometric assay for canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH) and to document changes in serum cTSH concentration during induction of hypothyroidism in dogs.

Animals—

Six healthy adult male Beagles.

Procedure—

Sensitivity, specificity, precision, and accuracy of the cTSH assay were evaluated in vitro. Hypothyroidism was induced in dogs by IV administration of sodium iodide I 131 solution. Subsequently, l-thyroxine was administered orally to normalize serum thyroxine concentrations.

Results—

The cTSH assay appeared to be specific and was sufficiently sensitive to detect cTSH in the serum of these dogs prior to induction of hypothyroidism. There was a 35-fold increase in mean serum cTSH concentration following induction of hypothyroidism, and 35 days after initiation of thyroid replacement therapy, mean serum cTSH concentration was not significantly greater than mean baseline value.

Clinical Implications—

Assay of serum cTSH is likely to prove helpful in the differential diagnosis of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism in dogs, and in monitoring response to thyroid hormone replacement treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:1730–1732)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Sixteen helminth-free pony foals were inoculated with a mean (±sd) 2,000 (±545.5) infective Parascaris equorum eggs (day 0). Foals were allocated to replicates of 4, and treatments within each replicate were assigned at random. Treatment administered on postinoculation day (pid) 28 included no treatment (control), 0.2 mg of ivermectin/kg of body weight, 10 mg of oxibendazole/kg, or 6.6 mg of pyrantel base (pamoate)/kg. Paste formulations of the anthelmintics were administered orally. The foals were euthanatized 14 days after treatment (pid 42) and examined for P equorum larvae in the small intestine. The mean ± sd (and range) numbers of fourth-stage P equorum larvae recovered from nontreated foals and those treated with ivermectin, pyrantel, or oxibendazole were 1,603.8 ± 1,026.8 (305 to 2,480), 29.3 ± 55.8 (0 to 113), 413.0 ± 568.1 (0 to 1,204), or 889.5 ± 1,123.1 (1 to 2,345), respectively. Compared with the value for control (nontreated) foals, treatment with ivermectin, pyrantel, and oxibendazole was 98.2, 74.2, and 44.5% effective, respectively, when administered 28 days after experimentally induced infection with P equorum. Adverse reactions attributable to treatment were not observed.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate use of an assay for measuring serum concentration of canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH) as an aid for diagnosing thyroid disease in a population of dogs suspected of having hypothyroidism.

Design

Case-cohort study.

Animals

62 healthy dogs and 49 dogs with clinical signs consistent with hypothyroidism (16 were hypothyroid and 33 were euthyroid with concurrent disease).

Procedure

Samples from healthy dogs were used to establish a reference range for serum cTSH concentration. The 49 dogs were categorized as hypothyroid or euthyroid with concurrent disease on the basis of clinical signs, results of additional diagnostic and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response tests, and response to administration of levothyroxine sodium. Function of the thyroid gland was considered normal when serum total thyroxine (T4) concentration 6 hours after TSH administration was > 2.5 µg/dl. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed when serum T4 concentration after TSH administration was ≤ 1.5 µg/dl.

Results

Serum cTSH concentration differed significantly among all 3 groups. Four of 33 (12%) euthyroid dogs had cTSH concentrations that were greater than the reference range, whereas 6 of 16 (38%) hypothyroid dogs had cTSH concentrations within the reference range. Specificity for serum cTSH concentration was 0.88 and sensitivity was 0.63. When interpreted in combination with serum T4 concentration, specificity increased to 1.0.

Clinical Implications

cTSH assay had good specificity for use in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Because this assay had low sensitivity, a diagnosis of hypothyroidism could not be excluded on the basis of a serum cTSH concentration that was within the reference range. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212:387-391)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Case Description—A 10-month-old Boxer was evaluated for fever and signs of cervical pain.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed lethargy, fever, and mucopurulent ocular and preputial discharge. On neurologic examination, the gait was characterized by a short stride. The dog kept its head flexed and resisted movement of the neck, consistent with cervical pain. Clinicopathologic findings included neutrophilic leukocytosis, a left shift, and monocytosis. Cervical radiographs were unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed neutrophilic pleocytosis and high total protein content. On the basis of signalment, history, and clinicopathologic data, a diagnosis of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis was made.

Treatment and Outcome—The dog was treated with prednisone (3.2 mg/kg [1.45 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h), for 3 weeks with limited response. Consequently, azathioprine (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) was administered. Three weeks later, the dog was evaluated for tachypnea and lethargy. Complete blood count revealed leukopenia, neutropenia, and a left shift. Thoracic radiography revealed a diffuse bronchointerstitial pattern. The dog subsequently went into respiratory arrest and died. On histologic evaluation, amoebic organisms were observed in the lungs, kidneys, and meninges of the brain and spinal cord. A unique Acanthamoeba sp was identified by use of PCR assay.

Clinical Relevance—This dog developed systemic amoebic infection presumed to be secondary to immunosuppression. The development of secondary infection should be considered in animals undergoing immunosuppression for immune-mediated disease that develop clinical signs unrelated to the primary disease. Although uncommon, amoebic infection may develop in immunosuppressed animals. Use of a PCR assay for identification of Acanthamoeba spp may provide an antemortem diagnosis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association