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Abstract

Objective—To identify extracellular proteoglycans produced by canine melanoma cell lines and analyze the effect of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on these proteoglycans.

Sample Population—3 canine melanoma cell lines (ie, CML-1, CML-6M, and CML-10c2).

Procedure—Extracellular proteoglycans were analyzed by use of metabolic labeling and western immunoblot analysis. The effect of TGF-β1 on cell proliferation was determined by incorporation of 5- bromo-2'-deoxyuridine.

Results—The CML-1 and CML-6M melanoma cell lines produced 2 main extracellular proteoglycans. One of them was identified as versican, a proteoglycan found in undifferentiated human melanoma cell lines. The CML-10c2 cells produced a small amount of extracellular proteoglycans. Addition of TGF-β1 (1.25 to 6.25 ng/ml) increased the release of sulfated proteoglycans into the medium. The TGF-β1 had mainly a posttranslational effect, because it increased the molecular mass of the sulfated bands. Addition of IGF-I (50 ng/ml) slightly increased production of proteoglycans in the CML-6M cell line, whereas HGF (50 ng/ml) did not have any effect on proteoglycan production.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The proteoglycan content and response to TGF-β1 treatment for CML-1 and CML-6M canine melanoma cell lines are similar to that for undifferentiated human melanoma cell lines. In contrast, CML-10c2 cells produced a low amount of proteoglycans with high molecular weight. Because these extracellular proteoglycans are involved in the control of cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration, they may play an important role in the progression of melanomas in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1151–1158)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the quality of conjunctival samples for cytologic examination obtained with 2 conjunctival exfoliative brushes, a mini cytology brush (MCB) and a standard cytology brush (SCB), in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

20 client-owned dogs that were free of ocular disease.

PROCEDURES

A prospective single-center randomized trial was performed. For each dog, conjunctival samples of the right eye were obtained with the 2 brushes (ie, SCB or MCB) at 2 time points that were 5 to 11 days apart. The left eye was used as a control. Cytologic quality of conjunctival samples was scored on the basis of cellularity, clearness of background, uniformity of distribution of cells on the cytology slide, artifacts, cellular overlapping, cell preservation, presence of mucus on the cytology slide, and number of RBCs.

RESULTS

On cytologic evaluation, conjunctival samples collected with an SCB scored significantly better in terms of higher cellularity, less background debris, and more uniformity in the distribution of cells, compared with conjunctival samples collected with an MCB. Conjunctival samples collected with an MCB scored significantly better in terms of less cellular overlapping and less mucus in the background, compared with conjunctival samples collected with an SCB.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Overall conjunctival samples obtained with an SCB for cytologic evaluation had better diagnostic quality, compared with conjunctival samples obtained with an MCB. Use of an MCB, however, was advantageous to access localized conjunctival areas as well as collect conjunctival samples from patients with small palpebral fissures. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:288–293)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the prevalence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) among elite endurance horses after competition in a long-distance race.

ANIMALS

20 endurance horses and 12 nonexercised or minimally exercised age-, breed-, and trainer-matched horses from the same environment (control horses).

PROCEDURES

Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples collected from endurance horses at 3 to 8 days (sample A) and 36 to 38 days (sample B) after the race (100 km in 1 day [n = 3], 70 km/d for 2 days [12], or 100 km/d for 2 days [5]) were cytologically examined for the presence of hemosiderophages. Samples from control horses were collected at the same time as sample B was obtained from respective matched endurance horses and similarly examined. Horses with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples in which > 1% of identified cells were hemosiderophages were considered to have evidence of EIPH.

RESULTS

Of 20 endurance horses, 9 (45%; 95% confidence interval, 25% to 66%) and 10 (50%; 95% confidence interval, 29% to 71%) had cytologic evidence of EIPH in samples A and B, respectively. Evidence of EIPH was present in 6 of 20 (30%) horses at both sample collection times, 3 (15%) at the first sample time only, and 4 (20%) at the second sample time only. In contrast, 1 of 12 control horses had cytologic evidence of EIPH.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The prevalence of EIPH in these elite endurance horses (45% to 50%) was higher than previously reported estimates for poor-performing endurance horses; however, differences in criteria for identification of EIPH should be considered when comparing findings between studies.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To study the effects of a synthetic, dog-appeasing pheromone (sDAP) on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy.

Design—Randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—46 dogs housed in animal shelters and undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy.

Procedures—Intensive care unit cages were sprayed with sDAP solution or sham treated with the carrier used in the solution 20 minutes prior to use. Dogs (n = 24 and 22 in the sDAP and sham treatment exposure groups, respectively) were placed in treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. Indicators of stress (ie, alterations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase responses) were evaluated perioperatively. Behavioral response variables, salivary cortisol concentration, WBC count, and serum concentrations of glucose, prolactin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein were analyzed.

Results—Behavioral response variables and serum prolactin concentration were influenced by sDAP exposure. Dogs exposed to sDAP were more likely to have alertness and visual exploration behaviors after surgery than were dogs exposed to sham treatment. Decreases in serum prolactin concentrations in response to perioperative stress were significantly smaller in dogs exposed to sDAP, compared with findings in dogs exposed to the sham treatment. Variables examined to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses were unaffected by treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:673-681)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association