ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of peripheral nodal lymphoma and an expected survival time of > 4 weeks with treatment.
PROCEDURES Treatment consisted of a combination of L-asparaginase, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (L-CHOP) or an identical protocol except for the omission of prednisone (L-CHO). The primary outcome of interest was progression-free survival time. Veterinary caregivers and assessors of outcome were not blinded to treatment assignment. Treatment assignment was concealed from the owners of study dogs prior to enrollment, but was revealed after written informed consent was provided.
RESULTS The trial was terminated early because of slow enrollment. The 40 dogs successfully enrolled in the study were randomly assigned to the L-CHOP (n = 18) or L-CHO (22) group; results for all 40 dogs were analyzed with respect to the primary outcome. Median progression-free survival time was 142.5 days for dogs receiving L-CHO and 292 days for dogs receiving L-CHOP (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 3.75). Serious adverse events were more common among dogs receiving L-CHO. However, this difference was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The exclusion of prednisone from the L-CHOP protocol did not appear to result in improved progression-free survival time for dogs with peripheral nodal lymphomas. However, the present trial was likely underpowered to detect a clinically meaningful difference in progression-free survival time between groups.
OBJECTIVE To measure programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) mRNA expression in archived primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) specimens of dogs and determine whether that expression was associated with progression-free survival time (PFST).
SAMPLE Archived tumoral lymph node specimens from 42 dogs with DLBCL and lymph node specimens from 10 healthy dogs (controls).
PROCEDURES Archived tumoral and control lymph node specimens underwent multiplex qPCR analysis with probes and primers against canine PD-L1 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (housekeeping gene) to determine PD-L1 mRNA expression. The 2−ΔΔCt method was used to calculate the fold change in PD-L1 expression in DLBCL specimens relative to that in control lymph nodes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to evaluate the association of various tumoral and clinical factors with PFST.
RESULTS The fold change in PD-L1 mRNA expression in DLBCL specimens relative to control specimens ranged from 0.21 to 7.44. Twenty-one of 42 (50%) DLBCL specimens had a PD-L1-fold change > 1, which suggested PD-L1 was overexpressed in those specimens. Median PFST was 249 days for dogs with DLBCL. The PFST was not associated with PD-L1 mRNA expression but was associated with thrombocytopenia at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 5.15).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that tumoral PD-L1 mRNA expression varied among dogs with DLBCL and that PD-L1 MRNA was overexpressed in half the study population. Therefore, anti–PD-L1 therapies may be clinically beneficial for some dogs with DLBCL.
Objective—To determine the outcome in dogs undergoing urethral stent placement for management of urethral obstruction secondary to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—19 dogs with histopathologically confirmed TCC.
Procedures—Information regarding urethral stent placement and follow-up treatment was obtained from review of medical records. Quality of life assessment was performed with an owner questionnaire.
Results—Self-expanding nitinol stents were successfully placed in 17 of 19 dogs; stent placement was not possible in one dog, and another dog was euthanatized 2 days after stent placement, but before discharge from the hospital. Median survival time in 17 dogs following successful long-term stent placement was 78 days (range, 2 to 366 days). Complications following stent placement in 18 dogs included incontinence (n = 7), reobstruction from continued growth of urethral TCC (3), acute reobstruction shortly after the procedure (1), and stent migration (2). Of the 17 owners surveyed, 16 were satisfied with the outcome and would recommend urethral stent placement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The placement of self-expanding nitinol urethral stents was successful in alleviating TCC-induced urethral obstruction and providing good quality of life for most dogs.