A 10-year-old 2.4-kg (5.3-lb) neutered male domestic shorthaired cat was evaluated on an emergency basis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Zurich, Switzerland, because of lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting with acute deterioration of its condition during the preceding 12-hour period. The owner mentioned the cat had been lying down outside (outdoor temperature, −2° to 4°C [28° to 39°F]) all morning and had become very apathetic. Prior medical history included chronic renal failure of 2 years' duration and medical treatment with benazepril.
On physical examination, the cat was stuporous, had moderate to severe hypothermia (rectal temperature, < 32°C
A 14-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was presented to the University of Cambridge Queen’s Veterinary School Hospital for further evaluation of an arrhythmia detected during a routine examination about 5 months earlier. The cat had no clinical signs referable to a cardiac problem and no clinical complaints. An ECG obtained by the referring practice was suggestive of third-degree atrioventricular block. Clinicopathologic testing done at that time revealed lymphopenia (0.92 X 109 lymphocytes/L; reference range, 1.5 X 109 to 7.0 X 109 lymphocytes/L), mild hypophosphatemia (0.9 mmol/L; reference range, 1.0 to 2.46 mmol/L),
OBJECTIVE To compare stroke volume (SV) calculated on the basis of cardiac morphology determined by MRI and results of phase-contrast angiography (PCA) of ventricular inflow and outflow in dogs.
ANIMALS 10 healthy Beagles.
PROCEDURES Cardiac MRI was performed twice on each Beagle. Cine gradient echo sequences of both ventricles in short-axis planes were used for morphological quantification of SVs by assessment of myocardial contours. From the long-axis plane, SVs in 4-chamber and left ventricular 2-chamber views were acquired at end diastole and end systole. For calculation of SV on the basis of blood flow, PCA was performed for cardiac valves.
RESULTS Mean ± SD values for SV quantified on the basis of blood flow were similar in all valves (aortic, 17.8 ± 4.1 mL; pulmonary, 17.2 ± 5.4 mL; mitral, 17.2 ± 3.9 mL; and tricuspid, 16.9 ± 5.1 mL). Morphological quantification of SV in the short-axis plane yielded significant differences between left (13.4 ± 2.7 mL) and right (8.6 ± 2.4 mL) sides. Morphological quantification of left ventricular SV in the long-axis plane (15.2 ± 3.3 mL and 20.7 ± 3.8 mL in the 4- and 2-chamber views) yielded variable results, which differed significantly from values for flow-based quantification, except for values for the morphological 4-chamber view and PCA for the atrioventricular valves, for which no significant differences were identified.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In contrast to quantification based on blood flow, calculation on the basis of morphology for the short-axis plane significantly underestimated SV, probably because of through-plane motion and complex right ventricular anatomy.
To determine optimal sample preparation conditions with potassium triiodide (I2KI) and optimal imaging settings for microfocus CT (micro-CT) of excised cat hearts.
7 excised hearts (weight range, 10 to 17.6 g) obtained from healthy adult cats after euthanasia by IV injection of pentobarbital sodium.
Following excision, the hearts were preserved in 10% formaldehyde solution. Six hearts were immersed in 1.25% I2KI solution (n = 3) or 2.5% I2KI solution (3) for a 12-day period. Micro-CT images were acquired at time 0 (prior to iodination) then approximately every 24 and 48 hours thereafter to determine optimal sample preparation conditions (ie, immersion time and concentration of I2KI solution). Identified optimal conditions were then used to prepare the seventh heart for imaging; changes in voltage, current, exposure time, and gain on image quality were evaluated to determine optimal settings (ie, maximal signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios). Images were obtained at a voxel resolution of 30 μm. A detailed morphological assessment of the main cardiac structures of the seventh heart was then performed.
Immersion in 2.5% I2KI solution for 48 hours was optimal for sample preparation. The optimal imaging conditions included a tube voltage of 100 kV, current of 150 μA, and exposure time of 354 milliseconds; scan duration was 12 minutes.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results provided an optimal micro-CT imaging protocol for excised cat hearts prepared with I2KI solution that could serve as a basis for future studies of micro-CT for high resolution 3-D imaging of cat hearts.