Objective—To determine the maximum amount of flexion and extension of the carpal, tarsal, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints and the percentage duration of the stance and swing phases of the stride for horses walking on an underwater treadmill in various water depths.
Animals—9 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Zinc oxide markers were placed on the forelimbs and hind limbs of the horses. Video was recorded of horses walking (0.9 m/s) on an underwater treadmill during baseline conditions (< 1 cm of water) or in various amounts of water (level of the metatarsophalangeal, tarsal, and stifle joints). Maximum amount of joint flexion and extension, range of motion (ROM), and the percentage durations of the stance and swing phases of the stride were determined with 2-D motion analysis software.
Results—The ROM was greater for all evaluated joints in any amount of water versus ROM for joints in baseline conditions (primarily because of increases in amount of joint flexion). The greatest ROM for carpal joints was detected in a tarsal joint water depth, for tarsal joints in a stifle joint water depth, and for metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints in metatarsophalangeal and tarsal joint water depths. As water depth increased, the percentage durations of the stance and swing phases of the stride significantly decreased and increased, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that exercise on an underwater treadmill is useful for increasing the ROM of various joints of horses during rehabilitation and that the depth of water affects the amount of flexion and extension of joints.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of MK-467 and hyoscine butylbromide on detomidine hydrochloride–induced cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal changes in horses.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES Horses received detomidine hydrochloride (20 μg/kg, IV), followed 10 minutes later by MK-467 hydrochloride (150 μg/kg; DET-MK), hyoscine butylbromide (0.2 mg/kg; DET-HYO), or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (DET-S), IV, in a Latin square design. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, arterial and venous blood pressures, and cardiac output were measured; blood gases and arterial plasma drug concentrations were analyzed; selected cardiopulmonary variables were calculated; and sedation and gastrointestinal borborygmi were scored at predetermined time points. Differences among treatments or within treatments over time were analyzed statistically.
RESULTS With DET-MK, detomidine-induced hypertension and bradycardia were reversed shortly after MK-467 injection. Marked tachycardia and hypertension were observed with DET-HYO. Mean heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure differed significantly among all treatments from 15 to 35 and 15 to 40 minutes after detomidine injection, respectively. Cardiac output was greater with DET-MK and DET-HYO than with DET-S 15 minutes after detomidine injection, but left ventricular workload was significantly higher with DET-HYO. Borborygmus score, reduced with all treatments, was most rapidly restored with DET-MK. Sedation scores and pharmacokinetic parameters of detomidine did not differ between DET-S and DET-MK.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE MK-467 reversed or attenuated cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects of detomidine without notable adverse effects or alterations in detomidine-induced sedation in horses. Further research is needed to determine whether these advantages are found in clinical patients and to assess whether the drug influences analgesic effects of detomidine.