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  • Author or Editor: José J. De Lucas x
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To determine the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin after IV administration in American black vultures (Coragyps atratus), to compare clearance of enrofloxacin in American black vultures with clearance of this fluoroquinolone in other avian species, and to evaluate whether allometric scaling is an appropriate tool for dose extrapolation in avian species.


6 healthy adult American black vultures.


Enrofloxacin concentrations were quantified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin was determined in American black vultures after IV administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters for 12 avian species obtained from 24 pharmacokinetic studies were used. Allometric analysis of enrofloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters was performed.


Volume of distribution at steady state for enrofloxacin was 3.47 L/kg, clearance was 0.147 L/h·kg, and elimination half-life was 18.3 hours. Comparisons among avian species revealed that American black vultures had the lowest extraction ratio for enrofloxacin (1.04%). Only the volume of distribution at steady state and clearance had a good allometric fit. Goodness of fit was improved when ratites were not included in the analysis.


Results suggested that the use of allometric scaling for the prediction of volume of distribution at steady state could provide a suitable method for extrapolation of enrofloxacin doses among avian species; however, allometric scaling could not be used to adequately predict the clearance of enrofloxacin.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) after multiple SC administrations and to assess differences in regimen efficacy.

Animals—18 healthy buffalo calves.

Procedures—Calves (n = 6 calves/group) were assigned to receive marbofloxacin SC in the neck at 1 of 3 dosages (2 mg/kg, q 24 h for 6 days [regimen 1]; 4 mg/kg, q 48 h for 6 days [regimen 2]; and 4 mg/kg, q 24 h for 3 days [regimen 3]). Serum marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed. Efficacy predictors were estimated on the basis of minimum inhibitory concentration and mutant prevention concentration reported for Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica.

Results—Mean ± SD area under the concentration-time curve was 5.92 ± 0.40 μg•h/mL for regimen 1, which differed significantly from that for regimens 2 (14.26 ± 0.92 μg•h/mL) and 3 (14.17 ± 0.51 μg•h/mL). Mean residence time and mean elimination half-life for regimen 2 (9.93 ± 0.20 hours and 8.77 ± 0.71 hours) both differed significantly from those for regimens 1 (721 ± 0.11 hours and 5.71 ± 0.38 hours) and 3 (759 ± 0.13 hours and 737 ± 1.19 hours). Values obtained from indices for P multocida and M haemolytica had an excessively wide range because of the various degrees of antimicrobial susceptibility (low, medium, and high) of the strains.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Regimen 3 had the most favorable indices, and it would be conducive for owner compliance and require less handling of animals.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research