Three 6-week-old pigs were submitted alive for necropsy to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University. The pigs were from a farm that operated a multisite production system, with a farrowing site and a wean-to-finish site. Among the 4,400 pigs at the wean-to-finish site, there was an outbreak of illness with estimated morbidity rate of 20% and estimated mortality rate of 8%. Pigs at the wean-to-finish site had been born within 2.5 weeks of each other and had been weaned at 3 weeks of age. The 3 pigs submitted (all 6 weeks old) for euthanasia and necropsy were
A 7-week-old 9.6-kg (21.1-lb) female Yorkshire pig was submitted for euthanasia and necropsy to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University. The pig was from a group of 30 Yorkshire pigs that had been weaned 4 weeks prior but had never thrived, with some pigs having developed diarrhea and coughing. In the 2 days prior to submission of the pig, 5 other pigs in the group developed clinical signs including shivering, lethargy, dyspnea, and staggering that progressed to paddling and death within 12 to 14 hours. Some of the affected pigs had swollen eyelids. The antemortem clinical signs
An 18-year-old sexually intact male ball python (Python regius) housed at a local Indiana zoo was found moribund without prior clinical signs and was transported to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University. On arrival at the diagnostic laboratory, the snake was alive, yet extremely lethargic; it was placed in a carbon dioxide–filled chamber until completely immobile and unresponsive followed by decapitation prior to necropsy.
Clinical and Gross Findings
Caretakers of the snake did not note any clinical signs prior to the sudden onset of lethargy. At necropsy, the snake was lean with atrophied fat bodies;
ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of peripheral nodal lymphoma and an expected survival time of > 4 weeks with treatment.
PROCEDURES Treatment consisted of a combination of L-asparaginase, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (L-CHOP) or an identical protocol except for the omission of prednisone (L-CHO). The primary outcome of interest was progression-free survival time. Veterinary caregivers and assessors of outcome were not blinded to treatment assignment. Treatment assignment was concealed from the owners of study dogs prior to enrollment, but was revealed after written informed consent was provided.
RESULTS The trial was terminated early because of slow enrollment. The 40 dogs successfully enrolled in the study were randomly assigned to the L-CHOP (n = 18) or L-CHO (22) group; results for all 40 dogs were analyzed with respect to the primary outcome. Median progression-free survival time was 142.5 days for dogs receiving L-CHO and 292 days for dogs receiving L-CHOP (hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 3.75). Serious adverse events were more common among dogs receiving L-CHO. However, this difference was not significant.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The exclusion of prednisone from the L-CHOP protocol did not appear to result in improved progression-free survival time for dogs with peripheral nodal lymphomas. However, the present trial was likely underpowered to detect a clinically meaningful difference in progression-free survival time between groups.
A 10-year-old 24.6-kg (54.1-lb) spayed female German Shepherd Dog mix was evaluated because of signs of cervical pain of 1 month's duration and acute left pelvic limb lameness of 5 days’ duration.
Clinical and Clinicopathologic Findings
Physical examination revealed signs of pain during left tarsal joint manipulation and an enlarged left popliteal lymph node. Mild to moderate effusion was evident in the left tarsal region (Figure 1). Neurologic examination findings were considered normal other than signs of pain that were elicited on palpation of the midcervical region. Radiography revealed no obvious cervical abnormalities; however, mild thickening of
Two aborted fetuses (A and B) from a 4-year-old ewe were submitted for an abortion evaluation. Fetuses A and B had a crown-to-rump length of 41.8 cm and 42.5 cm, respectively, indicating a gestational age each of approximately 19 to 21 weeks. This ewe was from a group of approximately 40 ewes. In this flock, 3 other ewes aborted; 1 ewe aborted midgestation and the other 2 ewes aborted around the same date and stage of gestation as this ewe. Another ewe in this flock gave birth to twins, one of which was stillborn and one that was weak
OBJECTIVE To measure programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) mRNA expression in archived primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) specimens of dogs and determine whether that expression was associated with progression-free survival time (PFST).
SAMPLE Archived tumoral lymph node specimens from 42 dogs with DLBCL and lymph node specimens from 10 healthy dogs (controls).
PROCEDURES Archived tumoral and control lymph node specimens underwent multiplex qPCR analysis with probes and primers against canine PD-L1 and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (housekeeping gene) to determine PD-L1 mRNA expression. The 2−ΔΔCt method was used to calculate the fold change in PD-L1 expression in DLBCL specimens relative to that in control lymph nodes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to evaluate the association of various tumoral and clinical factors with PFST.
RESULTS The fold change in PD-L1 mRNA expression in DLBCL specimens relative to control specimens ranged from 0.21 to 7.44. Twenty-one of 42 (50%) DLBCL specimens had a PD-L1-fold change > 1, which suggested PD-L1 was overexpressed in those specimens. Median PFST was 249 days for dogs with DLBCL. The PFST was not associated with PD-L1 mRNA expression but was associated with thrombocytopenia at the time of diagnosis (hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.28 to 5.15).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that tumoral PD-L1 mRNA expression varied among dogs with DLBCL and that PD-L1 MRNA was overexpressed in half the study population. Therefore, anti–PD-L1 therapies may be clinically beneficial for some dogs with DLBCL.
A 6.5-year-old 10-kg (22-lb) castrated male mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation of persistent lethargy, vomiting, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and pyrexia of approximately 1 month's duration. Treatments administered prior to referral included oral administration of the antiemetic metoclopramide hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], q 12 h) and amoxicillin (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], q 12 h) for 1 week, followed by oral administration of prednisone (2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], q 12 h) for 1 week. Intermittent seizures began during treatment with prednisone; the frequency of drug administration was decreased (2 mg/kg, q 24 h) 3 days prior to referral.
Objective—To determine the outcome in dogs undergoing urethral stent placement for management of urethral obstruction secondary to transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—19 dogs with histopathologically confirmed TCC.
Procedures—Information regarding urethral stent placement and follow-up treatment was obtained from review of medical records. Quality of life assessment was performed with an owner questionnaire.
Results—Self-expanding nitinol stents were successfully placed in 17 of 19 dogs; stent placement was not possible in one dog, and another dog was euthanatized 2 days after stent placement, but before discharge from the hospital. Median survival time in 17 dogs following successful long-term stent placement was 78 days (range, 2 to 366 days). Complications following stent placement in 18 dogs included incontinence (n = 7), reobstruction from continued growth of urethral TCC (3), acute reobstruction shortly after the procedure (1), and stent migration (2). Of the 17 owners surveyed, 16 were satisfied with the outcome and would recommend urethral stent placement.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The placement of self-expanding nitinol urethral stents was successful in alleviating TCC-induced urethral obstruction and providing good quality of life for most dogs.
Objective—To determine expression of folate receptors (FRs) and folate uptake in multicentric lymphomas in dogs.
Sample—10 dogs with histopathologically confirmed multicentric lymphoma and 20 archival lymph node biopsy specimens from dogs with multicentric lymphoma.
Procedures—Multicentric lymphomas in 10 dogs were prospectively evaluated for FR expression by use of immunohistochemical analysis and for in vivo folate uptake by use of nuclear scintigraphy. Dogs with FR-expressing tumors were eligible for FR-targeted chemotherapy. Twenty archival lymphoma biopsy specimens were also evaluated with immunohistochemical analysis.
Results—FRs were not detected with immunohistochemical analysis in lymph node samples obtained from the 10 dogs or in archival biopsy specimens. However, nuclear scintigraphy revealed uptake of radioactive tracer in 6 of 10 dogs. Five of these 6 dogs were treated with an FR-targeted chemotherapeutic agent; results of treatment were complete remission in 1 dog, stable disease in 2 dogs, and progressive disease in 2 dogs. Treatment-related toxicoses generally were mild.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided strong evidence for folate uptake in a substantial portion of multicentric lymphomas of dogs and indicated the antitumor activity of FR-targeted chemotherapeutics for these cancers. Use of FR-targeted chemotherapeutics may be promising for the treatment of FR-expressing multicentric lymphomas in dogs. Further studies are needed to determine reasons for lack of immunoreactivity to currently identified anti-FR antibodies and to develop improved methods for detecting FRs in lymphomas of dogs.