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  • Author or Editor: Jordyn M. Boesch x
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A 17-year-old female Asian small-clawed otter (Amblonyx cinereus) was anesthetized for a routine physical examination. Prior to induction of anesthesia, the otter was bright, alert, and responsive and its mentation, appetite, and activity level were normal according to zookeepers. On physical examination, the otter was in good body condition, with no overt external abnormalities. Abdominal palpation revealed 2 small firm kidneys, with the right smaller than the left. Serum concentrations of urea nitrogen (32 mg/dL; reference range, 6 to 64 mg/dL; mean, 23 ± 9 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.9 mg/dL; reference range, 0.3 to 2.0 mg/dL; mean,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the righting reflex after topical application of a sevoflurane jelly in cane toads (Bufo marinus).

Animals—8 cane toads.

Procedures—Toads were 6 to 8 months of age and weighed (mean ± SD) 142.0 ± 25.2 g. Sevoflurane jelly was applied to the dorsum of each toad at a dose of 25 μL/g in trial 1 and 37.5 μL/g in trial 2. Toads were placed in dorsal recumbency every 30 seconds until loss of the righting reflex. Jelly was then removed by rinsing the toads with tap water. Toads were then left undisturbed in dorsal recumbency until return of the righting reflex. Chamber sevoflurane concentration was measured to determine vaporization.

Results—6 of 8 toads in trial 1 and 8 of 8 toads in trial 2 lost the righting reflex. Mean ± SD time to loss of the reflex was 8.2 ± 1.3 minutes for trial 1 and 8.3 ± 0.9 minutes for trial 2; this difference was not significant. Mean ± SD time to return of the reflex was 25.6 ± 26.2 minutes for trial 1 and 84.4 ± 47.2 minutes for trial 2; this difference was significant. Chamber sevoflurane concentration did not change significantly, compared with baseline (time 0) concentration, at any time in trial 1; however, there was a significant change in chamber sevoflurane concentration from baseline (time 0) concentration in trial 2. Chamber sevoflurane concentrations were not significantly different between trial 1 and trial 2 at any time. Mean ± SD chamber sevoflurane concentration was 0.46 ± 0.2% for trial 1 and 0.57 ± 0.28% for trial 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sevoflurane jelly applied topically at a dose of 37.5 μL/g induced a more reliable loss of righting reflex and longer recovery time than when applied at a dose of 25 μL/g in cane toads.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of maropitant in cats receiving dexmedetomidine and morphine.

DESIGN Randomized controlled trial.

ANIMALS 66 healthy female domestic shorthair cats.

PROCEDURES Cats were randomly assigned to receive maropitant (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC; maropitant group; n = 32) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.1 mL/kg [0.045 mL/lb], SC; control group; 34) 20 hours before IM administration of dexmedetomidine (20 μg/kg [9.1 μg/lb]) and morphine (0.1 mg/kg). Following administration of dexmedetomidine and morphine, the incidences of emesis, retching, and signs of nausea (sialorrhea and lip licking) were compared between the 2 groups. The aversive behavioral response of each cat to injection of maropitant or saline solution was scored on a visual analogue scale by each of 4 observers who were unaware of the treatment administered.

RESULTS Only 1 of 32 cats in the maropitant group vomited, whereas 20 of 34 control cats vomited. The incidences of emesis and retching for the maropitant group were significantly lower than those for the control group. The incidence of signs of nausea did not differ between the 2 groups. Visual analogue scale scores for the maropitant group were significantly higher than those for the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present study indicated that administration of maropitant to healthy cats approximately 20 hours prior to administration of dexmedetomidine and morphine significantly decreased the incidence of emesis but did not decrease the incidence of signs of nausea. However, maropitant appeared to cause substantial discomfort when injected SC.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To compare the thermoregulatory and analgesic effects of high-dose buprenorphine versus morphine in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.


94 client-owned cats.


Cats were randomized to receive either buprenorphine 0.24 mg/kg or morphine 0.1 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC) during recovery from ovariohysterectomy. Body temperature measurements were obtained before anesthesia, during anesthesia (averaged), at extubation, and 2, 4, and 16 to 20 hours postoperatively. Signs of pain were assessed, and demographic characteristics were compared between groups. The effects of treatment and time on body temperature, point prevalence of hyperthermia (> 39.2 °C), and pain scores were compared with linear or generalized mixed-effect models.


Cats receiving morphine (vs. buprenorphine) were older and heavier (both, P ≤ 0.005). Other group characteristics did not differ between treatments. Cats receiving buprenorphine (vs. morphine) had higher postoperative temperatures (P = 0.03). At 2, 4, and 16 to 20 hours after extubation, the point prevalence of hyperthermia was greater (P = 0.001) for cats receiving buprenorphine (55% [26/47], 44% [21/47], and 62% [27/43], respectively) versus morphine (28% [13/46], 13% [6/46], and 47% [21/44], respectively). There were no differences in pain scores between groups or over time. Five cats receiving buprenorphine and 6 receiving morphine required rescue analgesia within the 24-hour period.


Administration of buprenorphine (0.24 mg/kg SC), compared with morphine (0.1 mg/kg SC), resulted in higher body temperatures without an apparent advantage with regard to analgesia during the first 20 postoperative hours than morphine. Opioid-induced postoperative hyperthermia could confound the diagnosis of fever from different sources.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research