To determine the prevalence of presumed postictal changes (PC) on brain MRI in epileptic dogs, describe their distribution, and recognize possible correlations with different epilepsy features.
540 client-owned dogs with epilepsy and a complete medical record that underwent brain MRI at 4 veterinary referral hospitals between 2016 and 2019.
Data were collected regarding signalment, seizure type, seizure severity, time between last seizure and MRI, and etiological classification of epilepsy. Postictal changes were considered when solitary or multiple intraparenchymal hyperintense lesions were observed on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images and were hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted sequences, which were not confined to a vascular territory and showed no to mild mass effect and no to mild contrast enhancement.
Sixty-seven dogs (12.4%) showed MRI features consistent with PC. The most common brain sites affected were the piriform lobe, hippocampus, temporal neocortex, and cingulate gyrus. Dogs having suffered cluster seizures or status epilepticus were associated with a higher probability of occurrence of PC, compared to dogs with self-limiting seizures (OR 2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 4.30). Suspected PC were detected both in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy and in those with structural epilepsy. Dogs with unknown-origin epilepsy were more likely to have presumed PC than were dogs with structural (OR 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06 to 0.33) or idiopathic epilepsy (OR 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.87). Time between last seizure and MRI was significantly shorter in dogs with PC.
MRI lesions consistent with PC were common in epileptic dogs, and the brain distribution of these lesions varied. Occurrence of cluster seizures or status epilepticus, diagnosis of unknown origin epilepsy, and lower time from last seizure to MRI are predictors of suspected PC.
To describe clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, and survival in 18 cats with anemia of suspected immune-mediated origin (ASIMO) and conflicting results using FeLV diagnosis tests, and to suggest an accurate way to assess their FeLV diagnosis.
Medical records from 5 veterinary institutions were retrospectively reviewed to identify cats with ASIMO, positive results on p27 SNAP ELISA, and negative results on pro-virus PCR testing in peripheral blood, in the absence of other identified triggers. Follow-up was recorded from diagnosis to the time of writing, and survival analysis was performed to assess similarities with previous published data.
18 cats were enrolled from referral centers in Spain, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Both peripheral immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA; 12/18) and precursor targeted immune-mediated anemia (PIMA; 6/18) were described. When the SNAP ELISA test was rechecked in patients with disease control, SNAP ELISA positive results had become negative. Two cats had a relapse of the ASIMO, and the FeLV SNAP ELISA tested positive again. Other signs of FeLV disease did not appear in any of these patients despite immunosuppression. 14 cats (14/18 [78%]) were alive at the time of writing, and the mean estimated survival time was 769 days.
This study describes incongruent FeLV results in cats with ASIMO. It supports the necessity to confirm FeLV SNAP ELISA positive results using additional tools, such as pro-virus PCR testing, as different p27 point-of-care and external serological tests may be inconsistent.