To investigate the effects of short-term and prolonged topical instillation of 0.1% diclofenac sodium, 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine, and 0.03% flurbiprofen sodium on corneal sensitivity (CS) in ophthalmologically normal cats.
12 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats.
In the first of 2 study phases, each cat received 0.1% diclofenac sodium, 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine, 0.03% flurbiprofen sodium, and saline (0.9% NaCl; control) solutions (1 drop [0.05 mL]/eye, q 5 min for 5 treatments) in a randomized order with a 2-day washout period between treatments. For each cat, an esthesiometer was used to measure CS before treatment initiation (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the last dose. There was a 2-day washout period between phases. The second phase was similar to the first, except each treatment was administered at a dosage of 1 drop/eye, twice daily for 5 days and CS was measured before treatment initiation and at 15 minutes and 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. The Friedman test was used to evaluate change in CS over time.
None of the 4 treatments had a significant effect on CS over time in either study phase.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that neither short-term nor prolonged topical instillation of 3 NSAID ophthalmic solutions had any effect on the CS of healthy cats. Given potential differences in cyclooxygenase expression between healthy and diseased eyes, further investigation of the effects of topical NSAID instillation in the eyes of cats with ocular surface inflammation is warranted.
A 13-year-old 28.6-kg (62.9-lb) spayed female English Setter was presented to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center's ophthalmology service for referral evaluation of a buphthalmic right eye (buphthalmia of unknown duration).
Clinical and Gross Findings
Neuro-ophthalmic examination of the right eye revealed loss of vision with no menace response, dazzle reflex, or direct or indirect pupillary light reflexes. Gross examination of the right eye revealed diffuse moderate to severe scleral injection, buphthalmia, and 2 focal areas of scleral pigmentation. The pigmented regions were smooth and localized to the dorsal and ventrolateral scleral regions (Figure 1).
To evaluate the effects of injectable dexmedetomidine-ketamine-midazolam (DKM) and isoflurane inhalation (ISO) anesthetic protocols on selected ocular variables in captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus; BTPDs).
9 zoo-kept BTPDs.
The BTPDs received dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (0.25 mg/kg, IM), ketamine hydrochloride (40 mg/kg, IM), and midazolam hydrochloride (1.5 mg/kg, IM) or inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen in a randomized complete crossover design (2-day interval between anesthetic episodes). Pupil size, globe position, tear production, and intraocular pressure measurements were recorded at 5, 30, and 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. For each BTPD, a phenol red thread test was performed in one randomly selected eye and a modified Schirmer tear test I was performed in the other eye. Intraocular pressure was measured by rebound tonometry.
Compared with findings for the DKM protocol, pupil size was smaller at all time points when the BTPDs underwent the ISO protocol. Globe position remained central during anesthesia with the DKM protocol, whereas it varied among central, ventromedial, and ventrolateral positions during anesthesia with the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure decreased significantly over time when the BTPDs underwent either protocol.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that ophthalmic examination findings for anesthetized BTPDs can be influenced by the anesthetic protocol used. The DKM protocol may result in more consistent pupil size and globe position, compared with that achieved by use of the ISO protocol. Tear production and intraocular pressure measurements should be conducted promptly after induction of anesthesia to avoid the effect of anesthetic episode duration on these variables.