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  • Author or Editor: Jonathon J. Dixon x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To describe clinical and CT findings for horses and ponies undergoing intraoral cheek tooth extraction and assess potential associations between these features and outcome of the procedure.


74 horses and 7 ponies.


Medical records were searched to identify horses and ponies that underwent CT and intraoral extraction of ≥ 1 cheek tooth with standing sedation. Signalment and clinical variables were recorded, and CT scans were reviewed. Anatomic location and measurements of affected teeth; abnormalities of the periodontium, pulp, infundibula, roots, and tooth shape; fracture presence and type; presence of sinusitis; and affected sinus cavities were assessed by a surgeon and a radiologist. Intraoral extraction outcome was recorded as successful (complete removal of the tooth in 1 intraoral extraction procedure) or unsuccessful. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between clinical or CT findings and outcome.


89 cheek teeth (80 maxillary and 9 mandibular) were included in the analyses. Sixty of 89 (67%) cheek teeth were extracted successfully (56/80 [70%] maxillary and 4/9 [44%] mandibular cheek teeth). Only presence of a simple fracture (vs no fracture) was associated with outcome on multivariable regression analysis; odds of successful intraoral extraction were significantly lower when this feature was present.


Most extractions of cheek teeth in the study sample were successful, and results may be useful for practitioners in refining cheek tooth extraction plans for horses and ponies. Further studies are required to assess whether specific CT findings can be used to predict the outcome of intraoral extraction in equids.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association