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Phosphorus is the 11th most abundant mineral on earth and is present in all living organisms. It is found in every part of the cell, including the phospholipid bilayer membrane, the mitochondria, and the nucleus. Phosphorylation is important for regulation of enzyme activity and results in both activation and inactivation of various key enzymes. The largest pool of phosphorus in vertebrates is skeletal tissue, which acts as a storage depot and may release or absorb phosphorus as needed. Overall, phosphorus comprises about 1% of the total body weight of an adult person, with 85% in skeletal tissue and bone,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Despite the availability of complete and balanced commercial canine maintenance diets, many owners choose to prepare their pet's diet at home for reasons such as having more control of the foods that their pet eats, distrust in pet food companies, and the desire to feed a more natural diet.1 Recipes published by veterinarians and lay writers are readily accessible to pet owners in the popular media (Internet, pet magazines, and books). However, current recommendations are that home-prepared diets are best evaluated and formulated by a veterinary nutritionist.2 In general, many home-prepared diets are more costly, more

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the prevalence, distribution, and progression of radiographic abnormalities in the lungs of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) and associations between these abnormalities and body weight, carapace length, and hematologic and plasma biochemical variables.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—89 cold-stunned juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Dorsoventral and horizontal beam craniocaudal radiographs were evaluated for the presence, distribution, and progression of lung abnormalities. Turtles were categorized as having radiographically normal or abnormal lungs; those with abnormalities detected were further categorized according to the distribution of abnormalities (left lung, right lung, or both affected). Body weight, carapace length, and hematologic and plasma biochemical data were compared among categories.

Results—48 of 89 (54%) turtles had radiographic abnormalities of the lungs. Unilateral abnormalities of the right or left lung were detected in 14 (16%) and 2 (2%), respectively; both lungs were affected in 32 (36%). Prevalence of unilateral abnormalities was significantly greater for the right lung than for the left lung. Evaluation of follow-up radiographs indicated clinical improvement over time for most (18/31 [58%]) turtles. Prevalence of bilateral radiographic abnormalities was positively correlated with body weight and carapace length. There was no significant association between radiographic category and hematologic or plasma biochemical variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Radiographic abnormalities of the lungs were commonly detected in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles. Results of this study may aid clinicians in developing effective diagnostic and treatment plans for these patients.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association