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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Vascular patterns to thoracic limbs, thorax, and neck muscles were studied in 10 dogs (20 limbs) to identify muscles most suitable for transposition in the treatment of large wounds. Gross dissection of injected specimens and angiography were used to identify vascular pedicles. Size and location of pedicles were generally consistent, and any variations would not interfere with most muscle transfers. The cutaneous trunci, latissimus dorsi, sternothyroideus, sternohyoideus, deep pectoral, anconeus, ulnaris lateralis, and ulnar head of flexor carpi ulnaris muscles were identified as suitable for transfer. The cranial trapezius, caudal omotransversarius, cleidobrachialis, and caudal sternocephalicus muscles also had potential for use. Other muscles, because of inaccessibility or unfavorable vascular pattern, were not suitable candidates for transfer.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Blood flow to the semitendinosus muscle was studied in 12 dogs after ligation of either the proximal or distal vascular pedicle and elevation of the muscle from its normal position. Using 15-μm-diameter radioactive microspheres, flow was measured at rest, 6 and 18 days after muscle elevation and pedicle ligation. Mean blood flow in the proximal region of the muscle 6 and 18 days after ligation of the caudal gluteal (proximal) pedicle was not significantly different from mean blood flow calculated in the middle and distal regions of the muscle. There was also no significant difference in mean blood flow among proximal, middle, and distal regions of the muscle, 6 and 18 days after ligation of the distal caudal femoral (distal) pedicle. There was significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood flow between group-A (ligation of caudal gluteal artery) and group-C (operated-control) muscles, 6 and 18 days after surgery. There was no loss of muscle fiber striations or nuclei, or presence of fibrous tissue that might have indicated ischemic necrosis in any of the experimental groups. These results indicate that the entire semitendinosus muscle can be sustained by the blood flow from either of its 2 vascular pedicles, which reinforces its potential as a muscle flap.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

The vascular patterns to pelvic limb muscles were studied in 6 dogs (12 limbs) to identify muscles most suitable for transposition in the treatment of large wounds. Gross dissection of injected specimens and angiography were used to identify the vascular pedicles. The vascular peicles to several muscles were generally consistent, and any variations would not interfere with most muscle transfers. The cranial part of the sartorius, gracillis, semitendinosus, and rectus femoris muscles were identified as suitable candidates for transfer. The caudal part of the sartorius, cranial tibial, and long digital extensor muscles have segmentalized vascular patterns that would limit its arc of rotation.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate effects of zoledronate on markers of bone metabolism in dogs after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL).

Animals—21 adult dogs.

Procedure—Unilateral CrCL transection was performed arthroscopically. Dogs were allocated to 3 groups (control group, low-dose zoledronate [10 µg/kg, SC, q 90 d for 12 months], and high-dose zoledronate [25 µg/kg, SC, q 90 d for 12 months]). Serum osteocalcin (OC), serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and urine pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Bone mineral density (BMD) was determined in the distal portion of the femur and proximal portion of the tibia via computed tomography at each time point. Data were analyzed by a repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results—Zoledronate inhibited OC in the high-dose group at 9 and 12 months and at 12 months in the low-dose group, compared with the control group. High-dose zoledronate decreased BAP concentrations 3 and 9 months after surgery. In the control group, BMD was decreased in the femoral condyle and caudal tibial plateau. Zoledronate prevented significant BMD decreases starting 1 month after transection, compared with control dogs. In the caudomedial aspect of the tibial plateau, both zoledronate groups had significant increases in BMD after 3 months, compared with control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Zoledronate may reduce subchondral bone loss and effect markers of bone metabolism in dogs with experimentally induced instability of the stifle joint and subsequent development of osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1487–1495)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate clinical and biomechanical gait variables in a group of dogs before and after (for 1 year) total hip replacement.

Animals

16 dogs with degenerative joint disease of the coxofemoral joint secondary to hip dysplasia deemed candidates for total hip replacement.

Procedure

Before and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, each dog was trotted over a biomechanical force platform. Vertical force data evaluated for each stance phase of the treated and untreated hind limbs included peak force, impulse, and limb loading and unloading rates. Vertical peak and impulse data were also evaluated for the forelimbs. Measurements analyzed in the craniocaudal axis, divided into braking and propulsion phases, consisted of peak force and associated impulses. Also, orthopedic examination for each dog included subjective scoring for limb lameness at each evaluation period.

Results

Most ground reaction forces (GRF) were significantly lower before surgery for the proposed treated, compared with the proposed untreated, limb. This difference between limbs continued through postoperative month 1. Also at 1 month, some treated limb values were significantly lower than preoperative values. By 3 to 6 months, treated limb GRF increased so that no significant difference between limbs could be found. Vertical and craniocaudal propulsion impulse values were significantly higher in the treated than untreated limb from the 6-month evaluation period through the remainder of the study. Braking component of the craniocaudal axes measurements was unchanged throughout the study.

Conclusions

GRF indicated that dogs of this study had significantly increased loading function of the treated hind limb by 6 months after unilateral total hip replacement. Data also indicated that some force was transferred from the untreated to treated hip over the study period. Loading rates also increased over the study period, indicating increased willingness to load the treated hip over time. Craniocaudal axis data ndicated no improvement in braking forces with coxofemoral joint replacement, suggesting that the coxofemoral joint with degenerative joint disease did not have altered braking performance at a trotting gait. Comparison of subjective lameness scores and objective GRF indicated that visual grading of coxofemoral joint lameness is limited. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1781–1785)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research