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  • Author or Editor: Jonathan Mochel x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between short-term oral prednisone administration and common clinicopathologic variables, cardiovascular biomarkers, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) in healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

8 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Dogs underwent five 5-day experiments (no prednisone treatment [control condition] and prednisone administration at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h), with a 9-day washout period between protocols. Analyses performed before and after treatments included a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and determination of SAP, fractional excretion of electrolytes, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum N-terminal pro B–type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and plasma cortisol concentrations, and plasma renin activity. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to compare changes in variables from baseline (day 1 for the same experiment) among treatment conditions.

RESULTS

Changes in serum glucose concentration and GFR were significantly greater after administration of prednisone at 4 mg/kg than for the control condition. Fractional excretion of sodium was decreased from baseline when dogs received 0.5, 1, or 4 mg of prednisone/kg, compared with results for the control condition. Several expected changes in clinicopathologic values were observed after prednisone administration at any dose. Changes in serum NT-proBNP concentration, plasma renin activity, and SAP did not differ from changes for the control condition at any prednisone dose.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Oral prednisone administration did not affect SAP, NT-proBNP concentration, or measures of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation in healthy laboratory-housed dogs but was associated with relative increases in GFR and serum glucose concentration.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess reliability of the Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) for measurement of tear production in cats in various environments, investigate whether sympathetic stimulation impacts measurements, and determine whether meaningful conclusions regarding lacrimation in cats can be drawn from STT-1 measurements obtained with STT strip placement for < 1 minute.

ANIMALS

176 cats examined in a private practice (n = 100), a feral cat clinic (56), or a veterinary teaching hospital (20).

PROCEDURES

The STT-1 was performed in both eyes of each cat. Measurements were recorded at 10− or 30-second intervals for 1 minute. Cats at the teaching hospital were tested once in a quiet examination room (unstimulated conditions) and once in the same room with loud prerecorded noises (stimulated conditions), with a 30-minute interval between tests and evaluation of cats’ heart rates before and after STT-1. Data were analyzed with parametric statistical tools and a nonlinear mixed-effect model.

RESULTS

30− and 60-second STT-1 measurements were significantly correlated (r = 0.94). The STT-1 measurements did not differ under nonstimulated versus stimulated conditions, despite significant changes in heart rates that indicated sympathetic stimulation. A hyperbolic model of STT-1 kinetics was validated, allowing for extrapolation of measurements obtained in < 60 seconds and generation of reference values (95% predictive intervals) for various test durations. Median (95% predictive interval) 30− and 60-second STT-1 measurements were 9.1 mm (4.8 to 15.6 mm) and 14.3 mm (8.2 to 22.3 mm), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The STT-1 was a reliable diagnostic test in all settings; results were not affected by sympathetic stimulation, and a shorter duration of testing could be considered in selected cases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the time-course of ampicillin-sulbactam and percentage of time that its concentration is above a given MIC (T% > MIC) in dogs with septic peritonitis when delivered as either a continuous infusion (CI) or intermittent infusion (II).

ANIMALS

11 dogs with septic peritonitis.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomized to receive ampicillin-sulbactam as either CI or II. Continuous infusions were delivered as a 50 mg/kg bolus IV followed by a rate of 0.1 mg/kg/min. Intermittent infusions were administered as 50 mg/kg IV q8h. Serum ampicillin-sulbactam concentrations were measured at hours 0, 1, 6, and every 12 hours after until patients were transitioned to an oral antimicrobial equivalent. All other care was at the discretion of the attending clinician. Statistical analysis was used to determine each patient's percentage of time T% > MIC for 4 MIC breakpoints (0.25, 1.25, 8, and 16 µg/mL).

RESULTS

No dogs experienced adverse events related to ampicillin-sulbactam administration. Both CI and II maintained a T% > MIC of 100% of MIC 0.25 µg/mL and MIC 1.25 µg/mL. The CI group maintained a higher T% > MIC for MIC 8 µg/mL and MIC 16 µg/mL; however, these differences did not reach statistical significance (P = .15 and P = .12, respectively).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study could not demonstrate that ampicillin-sulbactam CI maintains a greater T% > MIC in dogs with septic peritonitis than II; however, marginal differences were noted at higher antimicrobial breakpoints. While these data support the use of antimicrobial CI in septic and critically ill patients, additional prospective trials are needed to fully define the optimal doses and the associated clinical responses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate mechanisms by which anti-inflammatory doses of orally administered intermediate-acting glucocorticoids (prednisone) could predispose dogs to progression of heart disease or congestive heart failure.

ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs with allergic dermatitis and 11 matched healthy control dogs.

PROCEDURES Clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables were measured. Dogs with allergic dermatitis then received prednisone (1 mg/kg, PO) once daily for 14 consecutive days beginning on day 0 (baseline), followed by a tapering and washout period; control dogs received no treatment. Measurements were repeated on days 7, 14, and 35. Linear mixed modeling was used to compare changes in variables across measurement points and between dog groups.

RESULTS Prednisone administration caused no significant changes in serum sodium or potassium concentration, blood glucose concentration, or target echocardiographic variables. The change from baseline in systolic arterial blood pressure at day 7 was significantly greater in prednisone-treated dogs than in control dogs. Expected changes in hematologic and serum biochemical values with prednisone administration (neutrophilia, eosinopenia, isosthenuria, and high serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities) also occurred in the prednisone-treated dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that anti-inflammatory doses of orally administered glucocorticoids have the potential to adversely impact cardiac function in dogs by causing an increase in blood pressure and thus increased cardiac afterload.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the clinicopathologic, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic effects of short-term administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone to systemically normal cats.

ANIMALS

10 cats with allergic dermatitis and 10 healthy control cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats with allergic dermatitis were randomly allocated to 2 groups and received 2 dosages of prednisolone (1 and 2 mg/kg/d, PO, for 7 days) in a crossover design followed by 9-day tapering and 14-day washout periods. Each prednisolone-treated cat was matched to a healthy control cat on the basis of sex, neuter status, age (± 1 year), and body weight (± 10%). Control cats received no treatment during the 35-day observation period. Clinicopathologic, echocardiographic, and hemodynamic variables were measured at baseline (day 0) and predetermined times during and after prednisolone administration and compared within and between the 2 treatment groups.

RESULTS

Prednisolone-treated cats had expected clinicopathologic alterations (mild increases in neutrophil and monocyte counts and serum concentrations of albumin, cholesterol, and triglycerides) but systolic arterial blood pressure; blood glucose, serum potassium, and cardiac biomarker concentrations; urinary sodium excretion; and echocardiographic variables did not differ significantly from baseline at any time. Statistically significant, albeit clinically irrelevant, increases in blood glucose and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were observed between baseline and the prednisolone pharmacokinetic steady state (7 days after initiation) only when the 2-mg/kg dosage was administered.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated short-term oral administration of anti-inflammatory dosages of prednisolone did not cause relevant hemodynamic, echocardiographic, or diabetogenic effects in systemically normal cats with allergic dermatitis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate systemic absorption and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects of topical ketorolac 0.5% and diclofenac 0.1% ophthalmic solutions.

ANIMALS

11 healthy purpose-bred Beagles.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either ketorolac (n = 6) or diclofenac (5), 1 drop in both eyes 4 times daily for 28 days. Upper GI endoscopy was performed on days 0 and 29 with mucosal lesion scores (0 to 7) assigned to each region evaluated. Plasma samples were collected on days 14, 21, and 28 for measurement of diclofenac and ketorolac using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.

RESULTS

GI erosions and/or ulcers developed in all ketorolac-treated dogs and 1 of 5 diclofenac-treated dogs. Post-treatment mucosal lesion score for the antrum was higher in the ketorolac group than in the diclofenac group (P = .006) but not significantly different for any other region. Post-treatment antral mucosal lesion scores were significantly related to plasma ketorolac concentrations (P < .001). Ketorolac and diclofenac were detected in the plasma at all time points (median ketorolac day 14, 191 ng/mL; day 21, 173.5 ng/mL; and day 28, 179.5 ng/mL; and median diclofenac day 14, 21.1 ng/mL; day 21, 20.6 ng/mL; day 28, 27.5 ng/mL). Vomiting and decreased appetite events were observed uncommonly and were not significantly different between treatment groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

GI ulceration and erosion developed after ophthalmic administration of ketorolac and diclofenac, with higher plasma concentrations and more severe GI lesions associated with ketorolac. Clients should be alerted to this potential risk with ophthalmic use and informed to watch for systemic clinical signs that would warrant veterinary reevaluation.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association