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  • Author or Editor: Jonathan M. Naylor x
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Summary

The effect of electrolyte solutions commercially formulated for oral administration on clotting of milk was investigated in vitro. Rennet or abomasal fluid was used as the clotting agent. Electrolyte solutions that contained large amounts of bicarbonate or citrate (> 40 mEq/L) had marked adverse effects on milk clotting, probably because bicarbonate increased pH and because citrate chelated calcium. Addition of solutions that did not contain alkalinizing agents resulted in normal or enhanced clotting, and enhancement was associated with the presence of acid phosphate salts. Electrolyte solutions that included acetate as the alkalinizing agent did not interfere with milk clotting as long as pH of the final solution was acidic and minimal amounts of citric acid salts were present (< 10 mEq/L). Acetate-containing electrolyte solutions can be used for oral administration in calves in which alkalinization of blood without interference with milk clotting is desired.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

We investigated the effect of adding psyllium to a standard electrolyte solution in 10 calves with diarrhea. The calves were tested with the standard solution on one day and standard solution plus psyllium on the alternate day. The order of treatments was randomized. Psyllium converted the solution into mucilage, but did not affect fecal consistency. Mean ± sem area under the glucose absorption curve was lower for mucilaginous than for nonmucilaginous solutions, 2.1 ± 0.62 vs 3.75 ± 1.18 mmol·h, respectively, but the difference was not significant. The area under the breath hydrogen curve was marginally lower for mucilaginous than non-mucilaginous solutions, 102 ± 20 and 209 ± 60 ppm·h, respectively. The usefulness of such decreased bacterial fermentation is doubtful.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine historical and clinical findings, treatment, and outcome for cattle with small intestinal obstruction caused by a trichobezoar.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—15 cattle.

Procedures—Medical records of cattle with a diagnosis of small intestinal obstruction by a trichobezoar from 1992 to 2002 were reviewed. Information pertaining to various aspects of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome was collected from records.

Results—Trichobezoars were more common in young cattle, and affected cattle did not deteriorate clinically as rapidly as cattle with other types of intestinal obstruction. The most common initial owner complaints included decreased or absent fecal output, inappetance, abdominal distension, and signs of abdominal pain. Common clinical findings were dehydration, decreased or absent rumen motility, signs of depression, splashing sounds during succussion of the abdomen, and a pinging sound on percussion of the abdomen. The jejunum was obstructed in 10 cattle. Hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and chronic inflammation were common laboratory findings. All 4 cattle that underwent abdominocentesis had peritonitis. The obstructing trichobezoar was removed surgically in 9 cattle, of which 7 survived and 2 died. The 6 cattle treated medically died or were euthanized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Obstruction of the small intestine by a trichobezoar is uncommon, but it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cattle with signs of intestinal obstruction, particularly if they are younger than 4 years of age and have a history of nonacute signs of intestinal obstruction. Surgical removal appears to be a favorable method of treatment and should be considered when this condition is suspected.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare the outcome of horses with nephrosplenic entrapment of the large colon (NSELC) treated surgically or medically by rolling, administration of phenylephrine hydrochloride (or both), and exercise.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—11 medically treated horses and 8 surgically treated horses with NSELC.

Procedure—Medical records of horses with nephrosplenic entrapment between 1992 and 2002 were reviewed. Medically treated horses were included if diagnosis and outcome of treatment of nephrosplenic entrapment were confirmed via transrectal examination and ultrasonographic examination. Surgically treated horses were included if the diagnosis was confirmed by exploratory laparotomy. Horses in which the large colon was entrapped between the spleen and body wall were not included.

Results—Significant differences in mean age, heart rate, and duration of colic prior to treatment were not detected between horses treated surgically or medically. Ten medically treated horses recovered without complications, and 1 died. In the surgically treated group, 6 of 8 horses recovered without complications and 2 died. Mortality rate did not differ between treatments. Duration of hospitalization for medically treated horses was significantly shorter and the cost significantly less than for surgically treated horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that medical treatment of horses with NSELC via administration of phenylephrine hydro-chloride, rolling during general anesthesia, or both appears to be as effective as and less expensive than surgical treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:603–605)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize hypernatremia in neonatal elk calves, including clinical signs, incidence, physical examination findings, and possible causes.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—26 neonatal elk calves were examined; 4 calves were evaluated twice, for a total of 30 examinations.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, physical examination findings, results of diagnostic tests, and response to treatment. Hypernatremia was defined as serum sodium concentration > 153 mEq/L.

Results—Hypernatremia was diagnosed in 14 calves and was significantly associated with diarrhea, high WBC count, high anion gap, and high serum concentrations of albumin, chloride, creatinine, and urea. Hypernatremia was not significantly associated with survival, but high serum albumin concentration and rectal temperature were significantly associated with survival of calves. Animals given antibiotics and electrolyte solutions orally prior to evaluation were significantly more likely to die than those untreated. Dehydration was a common reason for evaluation but was not significantly associated with survival.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypernatremia was significantly associated with diarrhea. Treatment of diarrheic elk calves is often the same as that used in bovine calves with diarrhea; however, bovine calves are commonly hypo- or normonatremic. Our experience suggests that treatment protocols used in bovine calves are unsatisfactory for elk calves. The rate at which serum sodium concentration is reduced should be < 1.7 mEq Na/L/h to avoid development of neurologic signs associated with iatrogenically induced cerebral edema. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:68–70)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To develop a surgical preparation to study the nutrient concentration difference across the portal vein-drained viscera of preruminant calves over a 2-week period.

Animals

9 healthy preruminant male Holstein calves.

Procedure

A bilateral subcostal approach was used to reach the portal area to provide access for proper placement of an ultrasonic transit time flow probe around the portal vein. The umbilical vein was used as an entry point for the portal vein catheter. The femoral artery was also catheterized. Calves were observed daily, and food intake was recorded. Body weight was recorded weekly. The calves were euthanatized, and necropsy was performed 2 weeks after surgery.

Results

Of the 9 calves, 7 recovered without surgical complications. Within 24 hours of surgery, 1 calf developed an intestinal hernia at the flank incision that was surgically repaired without further complications. One calf was euthanatized a week after surgery because it developed septicemia secondary to catheter-related infection.

Conclusion

The bilateral subcostal approach provided access to the portal area, and the umbilical vein was useful as an entry point. Application of an ultrasonic flow probe provided consistent measurements of blood flow over a 2-week period.

Clinical Relevance

These results may have implications for development of treatment to promote gastrointestinal tract healing in calves with diarrhea. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1323-1328)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To quantify glutamine use by viscera drained by the portal vein in neonatal calves and to determine whether uptake could be stimulated by long-term IV infusion or long-term use of oral supplements.

Animals

4 healthy neonatal calves.

Procedure

A femoral artery, jugular vein, and the portal vein were surgically cannulated in each calf. Blood flow in the portal vein was measured, using an ultrasonic transit-time flow probe. Calves were given an IV infusion of glutamine on days 6, 8, and 10 after surgery. Before the first infusion, calves were fed a diet of milk only. The diet was supplemented with glutamine for the second and third infusions. Glutamine was administered via the jugular vein during a 5-hour period. Venous and arterial blood samples were collected every hour for 5 hours.

Results

During glutamine infusion, uptake of glutamine by viscera drained by the portal vein increased in association with increased production of ammonia. Glutamine supplementation of the diet did not alter glutamine uptake. Glutamine infusion did not increase viscera uptake of indispensable amino acids. Longterm use of glutamine supplements or infusion of glutamine for periods of more than 1 hour increased glutamine uptake by viscera. Arterial leucine concentration and uptake of leucine by the viscera decreased during glutamine infusion, indicating that leucine became the limiting factor.

Conclusion

Glutamine administration (supplements or infusions) to calves may require that a mixture of amino acids be provided to improve effectiveness.

Clinical Relevance

Glutamine may be beneficial in treatments designed to promote intestinal healing in diarrheic calves. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:446-451)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To quantify glutamine use in viscera drained by the portal vein in neonatal calves and to assess the relative nutritional importance of glutamine, glucose, and acetate for enterocytes.

Animals

5 healthy neonatal calves.

Procedure

A femoral artery, jugular vein, and the portal vein were surgically cannulated in each calf. Blood flow in the portal vein was measured by use of an ultrasonographic transit-time flow probe. A series of solutions was infused on 4 days for each calf. On the infusion days, acetate, glucose, glutamine, and saline (0.9% NaCl; control) solutions were administered IV during 1-hour periods via the jugular vein. Venous and arterial blood samples were collected during the last 15 minutes of each 1-hour infusion.

Results

Uptake of glutamine and glucose by viscera drained by the portal vein was 0.3 ± 1.1 and 1.9 ± 3.1 µmol/kg0.75/min, respectively, during saline infusion. During acetate, glucose, and saline infusions, glucose was a greater source of energy for the intestines than was glutamine. However, during glutamine infusion, uptake of glutamine by viscera drained by the portal vein increased significantly (29.9 ± 11.2 µmol/kg0.75/min), which was associated with an increase in ammonia production (7.0 ± 0.5 µmol/kg0.75/min). Toxicosis was not associated with IV administration of glutamine.

Conclusion

Glutamine infusion resulted in an increase in glutamine uptake by viscera drained by the portal vein, which was associated with an increase in ammonia production and a slight increase in oxygen consumption.

Clinical Relevance

These solutions may be used to develop treatments that enhance healing of intestines of diarrheic calves. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:437-445)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research