OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.
DESIGN Observational study.
ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats.
PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]).
RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate.
To describe the clinical findings and short-term outcomes for rabbits with signs of gastrointestinal tract dysfunction or rabbit gastrointestinal syndrome (RGIS).
117 client-owned rabbits.
The electronic medical records database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify rabbits that were examined because of altered or absent food intake and decreased or absent fecal output between June 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016. For each rabbit, information extracted from the record included history of prior episodes of gastrointestinal tract dysfunction, signalment, physical examination and diagnostic test results, and outcome.
117 of the 484 (24%) rabbits examined at the hospital during the study period met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in the study. Fifty-nine and 58 rabbits were managed on an inpatient and outpatient basis, respectively. Gastrointestinal stasis without overt obstruction was diagnosed for 43 rabbits on the basis of abdominal radiographic, ultrasonographic, or necropsy results. Many rabbits had concurrent disease and biochemical abnormalities. Fifteen, 18, and 84 rabbits died, were euthanized, and survived to hospital discharge, respectively. Rabbits that were hypothermic (rectal temperature, ≤ 36.6°C [97.9°F]) during the initial examination were 5 times as likely to die or be euthanized as were euthermic rabbits, after controlling for potential confounders.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that the prognosis was generally good for rabbits with signs of RGIS unless they were hypothermic during initial examination. Prospective studies are warranted to further elucidate and characterize RGIS and assess the efficacy of various treatments and outcomes for affected rabbits.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of urinary bladder lavage on in-hospital recurrence of urethral obstruction (UO) and durations of urinary catheter retention and hospitalization for male cats.
DESIGN Randomized controlled clinical trial.
ANIMALS 137 male cats with UO.
PROCEDURES Following random allocation, cats either did (flush group; n = 69) or did not (no-flush group; 68) undergo urinary bladder lavage with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution after alleviation of the obstruction and placement of a urethral catheter. Signalment, prior history of UO, presence of crystalluria, difficulty of urinary tract catheterization, in-hospital UO recurrence rate, and durations of urinary catheter retention and hospitalization were compared between the flush and no-flush groups.
RESULTS Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the 2 treatment groups. The in-hospital UO recurrence rate (9/69 [13%]) and median durations of urinary catheter retention (37 hours; range, 3 to 172 hours) and hospitalization (3 days; range, 0.5 to 12 days) for the flush group did not differ significantly from the in-hospital UO recurrence rate (13/68 [19%]) and median durations of urinary catheter retention (36 hours; range, 1 to 117 hours) and hospitalization (3 days; range, 1 to 9 days) for the no-flush group.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that, for male cats with UO, urinary bladder lavage at the time of urethral catheterization had no significant effect on in-hospital recurrence rate of the condition, duration of urinary catheter retention, or duration of hospitalization; however, additional studies are necessary to validate or refute these findings.