Objective—To assess microorganisms isolated from
blood specimens obtained from critically ill neonatal
foals and to evaluate their antimicrobial susceptibility
Animals—543 neonatal foals.
Procedure—Medical records of foals that were < 1
month old and were admitted to a referral neonatal
intensive care unit were reviewed for results of bacteriologic
culture of blood and antimicrobial susceptibility
Results—At least 1 microorganism was isolated from
155 of 543 (28.5%) foals. Escherichia coli was the
most commonly isolated bacterium. A single grampositive
organism was detected in 49 foals. Although
90% of the E coli isolates were susceptible to
amikacin, some gram-negative and gram-positive
organisms had resistance against multiple antimicrobials.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gram-negative
bacteria remain the most common isolates from
blood of neonatal foals; however, gram-positive
organisms were also found, and with greater prevalence
than reported elsewhere. Susceptibility patterns
may vary, and resistance to multiple antimicrobials
may develop. This is especially true for organisms
such as Enterobacter spp and Enterococcus
spp. Prudent empirical treatment for neonatal sepsis
should include broad-spectrum antimicrobials. (J Am
Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1608–1610)
Objective—To review management of pregnant mares with body wall defects and assess the effect of various management strategies on the outcome of mares and their foals.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—Medical records of eligible mares were reviewed. Signalment, history, admitting complaint, clinical findings, parity, type of body wall defect, concurrent diagnoses, postpartum complications, outcome of fetus, outcome of mare, and type of clinical case management were recorded.
Results—8 mares received conservative management and 5 mares received interventional management. Survival of mares to discharge was good, and no difference in mare survival was identified on the basis of type of management, type of body wall defect, or presence of hydrops. Foal survival was significantly better in the conservative management group, compared with those managed by interventional management, and was also better without hydrops.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Foal survival can be improved in mares with body wall defects that occur during parturition without compromising mare survival by use of conservative management strategies that avoid induction of parturition or elective caesarian section and allow for natural parturition. Potentially, improved fetal readiness for birth may play a role.
Case Description—A 1-day-old Standardbred foal with a history of extreme respiratory distress after birth consistent with upper airway obstruction was evaluated. A temporary tracheostomy tube was placed by the referring veterinarian.
Clinical Findings—On initial examination, there was evidence of hypoxic-ischemic syndrome, secondary to perinatal asphyxia. Endoscopy revealed obstruction of both nares at the level of the choanae; a diagnosis of bilateral choanal atresia was made.
Treatment and Outcome—The foal was anesthetized and underwent transendoscopic laser fenestration of the buccopharyngeal membranes. Three weeks after surgery, cicatricial narrowing of the choanae was apparent and further transendoscopic ablation was performed. Recurrent stenosis necessitated revision surgeries involving a combination of laser ablation with topical administration of mitomycin and, subsequently, a combination of radial incisions into the stenotic tissue and repeated bougienage with a cuffed endotracheal tube. The degree of stenosis decreased, and at 1 year of age, the horse was an appropriate size for its age, had choanae that were almost maximally open (> 85%), and had entered training. Mild stenosis was still evident when the horse was reexamined the following year, although there was no evidence of exercise intolerance or respiratory compromise.
Clinical Relevance—Bilateral choanal atresia in a foal can be successfully treated via transendoscopic fenestration of the buccopharyngeal membranes, enabling the horse to subsequently participate in athletic activities. Secondary problems resulting from initial asphyxia and recurrent stenosis at the surgical site can be overcome but may require prolonged and extensive treatment.
Objective—To document causes of colic in equine neonates, evaluate clinical features of neonates managed medically versus surgically, determine short- and long-term survival rates for neonates with specific medical and surgical lesions, and assess ability of patients to achieve intended use.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—137 client-owned equine neonates (< 30 days old) with a history of colic or signs of colic within 1 hour after hospital admission examined between 2000 and 2010.
Procedures—Signalment, history, results of physical examination, laboratory data, ancillary diagnostic tests, details of treatment, primary diagnosis, concurrent diseases and short-term survival rate were obtained from the medical records. Long-term follow-up information was obtained through phone survey.
Results—137 neonates with colic were included. The majority (122 [89%]) of neonates were managed medically. The 3 most common diagnoses associated with colic were enterocolitis (37 [27%]), meconium-associated colic (27 [20%]), and transient medical colic (26 [19%]). The most common reason for surgery was small intestinal strangulating obstruction, and these neonates were more likely to have severe, continuous pain and were less responsive to analgesics. Concurrent diseases were common (87 [64%]) but did not significantly impact survival rate. Short-term survival rate was not significantly different between medically (75%) and surgically (73%) managed neonates. Long-term survival rate was excellent (66/71 [93%]) for horses that survived to hospital discharge. Most neonates surviving to maturity were used as intended (49/59 [83%]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Most neonates examined for signs of colic can be managed medically. Short-term survival rate in medically and surgically treated neonates was good. Long-term survival rate of foals discharged from the hospital was excellent, with most achieving intended use.