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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of 3 doses of tapentadol hydrochloride orally administered in dogs.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES In a prospective, randomized crossover study, dogs were assigned to receive each of 3 doses of tapentadol (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, PO); there was a 1-week washout period between subsequent administrations. Plasma concentrations and physiologic variables were measured for 24 hours. Samples were analyzed by use of high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.

RESULTS Tapentadol was rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Mean maximum plasma concentrations after 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg were 10.2, 19.7, and 31 ng/mL, respectively. Geometric mean plasma half-life of the terminal phase after tapentadol administration at 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg was 3.5 hours (range, 2.7 to 4.5 hours), 3.7 hours (range, 3.1 to 4.0 hours), and 3.7 hours (range, 2.8 to 6.5 hours), respectively. Tapentadol and its 3 quantified metabolites (tapentadol sulfate, tapentadol-O-glucuronide, and desmethyltapentadol) were detected in all dogs and constituted 0.16%, 2.8%, 97%, and 0.04% of the total area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), respectively. Plasma AUCs for tapentadol, tapentadol sulfate, and tapentadol-O-glucuronide increased in a dose-dependent manner. Desmethyltapentadol AUC did not increase in a linear manner at the 30-mg/kg dose. Sedation scores and heart and respiratory rates were not significantly affected by dose or time after administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of tapentadol was tolerated well, and the drug was rapidly absorbed. Adverse events were not apparent in any dogs at any doses in this study.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare 4 analgesic protocols in dogs undergoing stifle joint surgery.

Design—Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial.

Animals—48 client-owned dogs that underwent stifle joint surgery.

Procedures—Dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy were randomly assigned to receive a constant rate infusion of a combination of morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine; a lumbosacral epidural with morphine and ropivacaine; both treatments (ie, constant rate infusion and lumbosacral epidural); or only IM premedication with morphine. Indices of cardiorespiratory function and isoflurane requirement were recorded at 5-minute intervals during anesthesia. A validated sedation scoring system and the modified Glasgow composite measure pain score were used to assess comfort and sedation after surgery and anesthesia once the swallowing reflex returned and a body temperature of ≥ 36.7°C (98.1°F) was attained. Pain and sedation scores were acquired at 60-minute intervals for 4 hours, then at 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Dogs with a postoperative pain score > 5 of 24 were given morphine as rescue analgesia.

Results—No differences in heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic arterial blood pressure, end-tidal Pco2, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, and vaporizer setting were detected among groups. No differences in pain score, sedation score, rescue analgesia requirement, or time to first rescue analgesia after surgery were detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pain scores were similar among groups, and all 4 groups had similar rescue analgesia requirements and similar times to first administration of rescue analgesia. All 4 analgesic protocols provided acceptable analgesia for 24 hours after stifle joint surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association