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Case Description—A 9-year-old castrated male Bichon Frise was evaluated because of a 3-week history of a nonhealing corneal ulcer and corneal pigmentation of the left eye.

Clinical Findings—Ophthalmic examination of the left eye revealed conjunctival hyperemia, corneal neovascularization, corneal edema, corneal ulceration, and central corneal pigmentation. Intraocular structures of the left eye could not be visually examined because of the diffuse nature of the corneal lesions. The right eye had anterior cortical incipient cataracts, nuclear sclerosis, and an inactive chorioretinal scar.

Treatment and Outcome—Superficial lamellar keratectomy of the left eye was performed for both therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Histologic evaluation of corneal biopsy specimens revealed dematiaceous fungal keratitis of the left eye, and topical administration of voriconazole was used to successfully resolve the keratitis. Seven months after diagnosis of dematiaceous fungal keratitis, the dog had no clinical signs or history of recurrence of the keratitis.

Clinical Relevance—Dematiaceous fungal keratitis should be considered as a possible cause of nonhealing corneal ulceration with heavy pigment deposition in dogs. Results suggested that lamellar keratectomy along with topical administration of voriconazole can be used successfully to treat dematiaceous fungal keratitis in dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare efficacy and duration of effect on corneal sensitivity of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride, 0.5% bupivacaine hydrochloride, 2% lidocaine hydrochloride, and 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride solutions following ocular administration in clinically normal horses.

Animals—68 clinically normal horses.

Procedures—60 horses were assigned to receive 1 anesthetic agent in 1 eye. For each of another 8 horses, 1 eye was treated with each of the anesthetic agents in random order with a 1-week washout period between treatments. Corneal sensitivity was assessed via corneal touch threshold (CTT) measurements obtained with a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer before and at 1 minute, at 5-minute intervals from 5 to 60 minutes, and at 10-minute intervals from 60 to 90 minutes after application of 0.2 mL of anesthetic agent. General linear mixed models were fitted to the CTT data from each of the 2 experimental groups to assess the effects of the anesthetic agents over time, accounting for repeated observations within individual horses.

Results—Corneal sensitivity decreased immediately following topical application of each anesthetic agent; effects persisted for 35 minutes for proparacaine and mepivacaine treatments, 45 minutes for lidocaine treatment, and 60 minutes for bupivacaine treatment. Maximal CTT reduction was achieved following application of bupivacaine or proparacaine solution, whereas mepivacaine solution was least effective.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ocular application of each evaluated anesthetic agent reduced corneal sensitivity in horses; although 0.5% proparacaine or 2% lidocaine solution appeared to induce adequate short-duration corneal anesthesia, use of 0.5% bupivacaine solution may be more appropriate for procedures requiring longer periods of corneal anesthesia.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To describe the prevalence of ocular lesions in cats with newly diagnosed histoplasmosis.


55 client-owned domestic cats.


As part of this prospective case series, cats diagnosed with histoplasmosis between the years 2015 and 2020 underwent complete ophthalmic examinations by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist prior to the initiation of antifungal treatment. Histoplasmosis was diagnosed by consistent clinical findings and identification of Histoplasma yeast on pathology or by the use of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay to detect Histoplasma antigen in urine.


Of the 55 cats, 45 (82%; 95% CI, 72% to 92%) had signs of active anterior, posterior, or panuveitis. The most common lesions were identified in the posterior portion of the globe and included chorioretinitis and partial retinal detachments (44/55 [80%; 95% CI, 69% to 90%] cats).


Detailed ophthalmic examinations should be performed on all cats with diagnosed or suspected histoplasmosis, as ocular involvement and subsequent vision loss are common.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association