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To determine pharmacokinetics, renal effects, and effect on atracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade of a high dose of gentamicin in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs.


6 healthy, adult, mixed-breed dogs, anesthetized twice and receiving gentamicin (6 mg/kg of body weight, IV) or saline solution.


Blood samples were collected before and at intervals after gentamicin administration. Pharmacokinetic values were evaluated by use of multivariant stepwise linear regression analysis. Gentamicin-induced renal changes were assessed by comparing pretreatment and 12- to 24-hour posttreatment values for serum urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urine creatinine-to-γ-glutamyltransferase ratio, and urinalysis. Neuromuscular blockade, maintained by atracurium infusion, was assessed, using the train-of-four response. At stable 50% depression of first twitch (T1) gentamicin or saline solution was given. Before and at posttreatment intervals for 60 minutes, T1% and fourth twitch-to-T1 ratio were recorded. The infusion was discontinued and 50 to 75% T1 recovery time was recorded. At 75% T1, edrophonium (0.5 mg/kg) was administered IV.


Mean values for volume of distribution and clearance were 0.263 L/kg and 2.0 ml/min/kg, respectively. Mean maximal serum concentration of gentamicin was 46.4 μg/ml. Pre and posttreatment values for serum urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, urine creatinine-to-γ-glutamyltransferase ratio, and other urine analytes were not significantly different. Mean (± SD) values for T1% and fourth twitch-to-T1 ratio decreased significantly after gentamicin (depression was maximal at 5 minutes). Recovery time (50 to 75% T1) was not different between groups. Edrophonium restored twitch to baseline.


Mean values for apparent volume of distribution and total body clearance of gentamicin were similar to values in unanesthetized dogs. Mean maximal serum concentration of gentamicin was greater than that in unanesthetized dogs. Renal function was unaffected. Gentamicin potentiated atracurium-induced neuromuscular blockade, but did not affect recovery time. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1623–1626)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Norfloxacin was given to 6 healthy dogs at a dosage of 5 mg/kg of body weight iv and orally in a complete crossover study, and orally at dosages of 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg to 6 healthy dogs in a 3-way crossover study. For 24 hours, serum concentration was monitored serially after each administration. Another 6 dogs were given 5 mg of norfloxacin/kg orally every 12 hours for 14 days, and serum concentration was determined serially for 12 hours after the first and last administration of the drug. Complete blood count and serum biochemical analysis were performed before and after 14 days of oral norfloxacin administration, and clinical signs of drug toxicosis were monitored twice daily during norfloxacin administration. Urine concentration of norfloxacin was determined periodically during serum acquisition periods. Norfloxacin concentration was determined, using high-performance liquid chromatography with a limit of detection of 25 ng of norfloxacin/ml of serum or urine.

Serum norfloxacin pharmacokinetic values after single iv dosing in dogs were best modeled, using a 2-compartment open model, with distribution and elimination half-lives of 0.467 and 3.56 hours (harmonic means), respectively. Area-derived volume of distribution (Vd area) was 1.77 ± 0.69 L/kg (arithmetic mean ± sd), and serum clearance (ClS) was 0.332 ± 0.115 L/h/kg. Mean residence time was 4.32 ± 0.98 hour. Comparison of the area under the curve (AUC; derived, using model-independent calculations) after iv administration (5 mg/kg) with AUC after oral administration (5 mg/kg) in the same dogs indicated bioavailability of 35.0 ± 46.1%, with a mean residence time after oral administration of 5.71 ± 2.24 hours.

Urine concentration was 33.8 ± 15.3 μg/ml at 4 hours after a single dose of 5 mg/kg given orally, whereas concentration after 20 mg/kg was given orally was 56.8 ± 18.0 μg/ml at 6 hours after dosing. Twelve hours after drug administration, urine concentration was 47.4 ± 20.6 μg/ml after the 5-mg/kg dose and 80.6 ± 37.7 μg/ml after the 20-mg/kg dose.

Absorption lag time after oral administration ranged from 0.186 ± 0.103 hour after multiple doses (5 mg/kg) to 0.385 ± 0.254 hour after a single dose of 10 mg/kg. The AUC increased (P < 0.01) as the dose increased. However, AUC per unit dose decreased linearly with dose (P < 0.05), most probably because of a dose-dependent decrease in absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess tolerability and short-term efficacy of oral administration of pregabalin as an adjunct to phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of phenobarbital and potassium bromide for treatment of dogs with poorly controlled suspected idiopathic epilepsy.

Design—Open-label, noncomparative clinical trial.

Animals—11 client-owned dogs suspected of having idiopathic epilepsy that was inadequately controlled with phenobarbital, potassium bromide, or a combination of these 2 drugs.

Procedures—Dogs were treated with pregabalin (3 to 4 mg/kg [1.4 to 1.8 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 3 months. Number of generalized seizures in the 3 months before and after initiation of pregabalin treatment was recorded. Number of responders (≥ 50% reduction in seizure frequency) was recorded, and seizure frequency before and after initiation of pregabalin treatment was compared by use of a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test.

Results—Seizures were significantly reduced (mean, 57%; median, 50%) after pregabalin administration in the 9 dogs that completed the study; 7 were considered responders with mean and median seizure reductions of 64% and 58%, respectively. Adverse effects for pregabalin were reported in 10 dogs. Mean and median plasma pregabalin concentrations for all dogs were 6.4 and 7.3 μg/mL, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pregabalin may hold promise as a safe and effective adjunct anticonvulsant drug for epileptic dogs poorly controlled with the standard drugs phenobarbital or potassium bromide. Adverse effects of pregabalin appeared to be mild. Additional studies with larger numbers of dogs and longer follow-up intervals are warranted.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association