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Objective—To develop a scoring system for histopathologic changes in the synovium of tarsocrural joints (TCJs) of horses with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) and to test for association between histopathologic changes and joint effusion or lameness.

Animals—93 horses with OCD of the intermediate ridge of the tibia of 1 or both TCJs (134 joints) and 38 control horses without disease of TCJs (38 joints).

Procedures—For OCD-affected horses, pretreatment lameness, TCJ effusion, and results of pelvic limb flexion test were scored. Synovial biopsy specimens were obtained from TCJs of OCD-affected horses during arthroscopy, and similar postmortem tissue specimens were obtained from control horses through a small arthrotomy. Histologic signs of synovitis in 172 biopsy specimens were scored by 2 pathologists (A and B) by use of 2 criteria: synoviocyte proliferation and cellular infiltration.

Results—Analysis of scoring revealed good to very good intraobserver agreement within pathologist A (weighted kappa [WK], 0.76 to 0.81), and moderate to good agreement within pathologist B (WK, 0.56 to 0.63). Interobserver agreement for synoviocyte proliferation (WK, 0.34 to 0.52) and cellular infiltration (WK, 0.38 to 0.48) scores was fair to moderate. Joint effusion and synoviocyte proliferation were significantly associated, as were joint effusion and cellular infiltration. There was no association between histopathologic changes and the other clinical signs evaluated.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The scoring system was helpful for evaluating synovial inflammation caused by OCD of the intermediate ridge of the tibia in horses. Histopathologic signs of synovial inflammation were associated with effusion but not with lameness.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To determine clinical, radiographic, and pathologic abnormalities in dogs with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—19 dogs with MED from 10 litters.

Procedures—The diagnosis was made on the basis of radiographs of the shoulder region and vertebral column. Ten dogs underwent necropsy.

Results—There were 11 Hygenhund, 6 Dunker, 1 Golden Retriever, and 1 English Pointer. Most dogs were examined because of lameness that developed at 5 to 8 months of age. The most common radiographic abnormality was a deficiency in ossification of the epiphyses, apophyses, and cuboidal bones of the appendicular skeleton and the epiphyses of the vertebrae; ossification of the metaphyses and the diaphyses typically were normal. Disease severity was consistent among littermates, but varied among dogs from different litters.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that MED is a rare condition in dogs characterized by a deficiency in ossification of the epiphyses of the long bones, the epiphyses of the vertebrae, the cuboidal bones, and the apophyses. Radiographic abnormalities were evident in dogs examined as young as 8 weeks of age, and most dogs had developed severe lameness by 5 to 8 months of age. The condition most likely had an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, although genetic studies of mode of inheritance could not be performed.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association