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  • Author or Editor: Jolle Kirpensteijn x
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Objective—To determine whether ovariohysterectomy (OVH) required more time to complete and was associated with more short-term postoperative complications than ovariectomy (OVE) in dogs.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—40 healthy, sexually intact female dogs.

Procedures—OVH (in 20 dogs) or OVE (20 dogs) was performed by use of standardized anesthetic and surgical protocols. Physical characteristics of the dogs, surgical variables, pain scores derived from behavior-based composite pain scales, and surgical wound characteristics were analyzed.

Results—Body weight, age, body condition score, and distance between the sternal manubrium and the pubic rim were comparable among dogs that underwent either surgical procedure. Body weight was positively correlated with the total duration of the procedure and with time required for closure of the surgical wound. No effect of body condition score was determined for any variable. Skin and fascia incision lengths relative to the distance from the sternal manubrium to pubic rim were significantly greater in dogs that underwent OVH, compared with those of dogs that underwent OVE, but total surgical time was not different for the 2 procedures. No other significant differences were detected between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Significant differences in total surgical time, pain scores, and wound scores were not observed between dogs that underwent OVH and dogs that underwent OVE via standardized protocols.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe CT image reconstruction criteria for measurement of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove (TT-TG) offset distance, evaluate intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability, and identify key sources of error in the measurement technique, as determined in vulpine hind limbs.

Animals—12 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers.

Procedures—CT images of each hind limb in intact cadavers were obtained; at 1-week intervals, 3 reconstructions were performed that were based on 1 plane passing through the centers of the femoral head and medial condyle and parallel to the caudal femoral condyles, 1 plane aligned with the femoral trochlea, and a third orthogonal plane. Randomized and anonymized reconstructions were assessed for TT-TG offset distance with a single-image technique by 1 observer, and inter-reconstruction repeatability and intra- and inter-reconstruction measurement repeatability were assessed via the repeatability coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient.

Results—Multiplanar reconstructions of hind limb images were repeatedly made to within a few degrees of each other. Intra- and inter-reconstruction repeatability for TT-TG offset distance measurement was good. Repeatability was most affected by accurate identification of the tibial tuberosity and femoral trochlea landmarks.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results obtained from vulpine hind limb CT images indicated that reconstructions can be made with a high degree of repeatability when based on strictly defined and applied criteria. The TT-TG offset distance has potential as an objective assessment of alignment of the distal portion of the quadriceps mechanism; its use as an aid in case selection for corrective femoral osteotomy among dogs with medial patellar luxation warrants investigation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize acute inflammatory and hemostatic surgical stress responses following castration in cats and to evaluate whether the addition of local anesthesia to the anesthetic protocol attenuates these responses.

Animals—39 male cats.

Procedures—Cats undergoing castration were randomly assigned to 2 groups: both groups underwent surgery with general anesthesia, and 1 group additionally received a local anesthetic (lidocaine [2.0 mg/kg in total, divided intratesticularly and SC]) prior to incision. Blood samples were collected after anesthetic induction (baseline) and 1, 5, and 24 hours later. Thromboelastography and coagulation variables (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT] and prothrombin time [PT]) were analyzed; fibrinolysis was assessed with plasma D-dimer concentrations. The acute-phase response was evaluated via measurement of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (last time point, 28 hours) concentrations. Hematologic variables were analyzed at baseline and 1, 5, and 24 hours later.

Results—Evidence of hemostatic and inflammatory activation after surgery was detected in both groups. Maximum amplitude and G (global clot strength) were significantly increased at 24 hours, and significant, but not clinically relevant, decreases were detected in aPTT at 5 and 24 hours and in PT at 24 hours, compared with baseline values. Serum amyloid A concentrations were significantly higher at 24 and 28 hours than at baseline, and plasma fibrinogen concentration was significantly increased at 24 hours; WBC and RBC counts and Hct were significantly increased at multiple time points. No differences between groups were detected for any variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Castration appeared to induce hypercoagulability and an acute-phase inflammatory response in cats. Local anesthesia with lidocaine did not attenuate this response.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare 5 patellar position indices at various stifle joint angles in cadavers of red foxes, determine measurement reliability, and assess the suitability of these indices for clinical use.

Sample—Pelvic limbs from cadavers of 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

Procedures—Patellar position in each limb at 7 stifle joint angles (30° to 148°) was assessed by use of the Insall-Salvati (IS), modified Insall-Salvati (mIS), de Carvalho (dC), patellotrochlear (PT), and Blackburne-Peel (BP) indices.

Results—Values for all indices varied significantly on the basis of joint angle, but for IS and mIS indices, this was minor and nonsignificant between 52° and 130° and between 52° and 148°, respectively. The dC index increased linearly, and PT and BP indices varied polynomially with increases in stifle joint angle. Stifle joint angles measured from radiographs agreed well with the goniometrically set stifle joint angles up to approximately 100° and diverged thereafter. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement was substantial for all indices, and IS index was the most precise.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IS and mIS index values were effectively independent of stifle joint angle, in contrast to dC, PT, and BP indices. The BP index varied nonsignificantly across a range of joint angles. To maximize angular accuracy, radiographs should not be obtained at joint angles > 100°. Although dC, PT, and BP indices appeared to be suitable for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of patellar position, BP index appeared to have the most promise for determination of patellar position in clinical applications.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate the hemostatic response to surgery and compare the response for ovariohysterectomy with that for ovariectomy and to evaluate the usefulness of thromboelastography on plasma samples.

Animals—42 female dogs.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to undergo ovariohysterectomy or ovariectomy. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 1, 6, and 24 hours after surgery and stored at −80°C for subsequent analysis. Plasma samples were subjected to thromboelastography after thawing. In addition, coagulation variables were measured, including concentrations of von Willebrand factor antigen, fibrinogen, antithrombin, and protein C; activity of factor VIII; activated partial thromboplastin time; prothrombin time; and thrombin time. The fibrinolytic response was assessed via concentrations of D-dimer, plasminogen, and α-2-antiplasmin (plasmin inhibitor).

Results—Substantial hemostatic and fibrinolytic activation was evident after surgery in both groups, as characterized by significantly increased global clot strength and an overall hypercoagulable state at 4 hours after surgery in addition to decreases in von Willebrand factor antigen and factor VIII concentrations and shortened prothrombin and thrombin times. The dogs also typically had activation of the fibrinolytic system, as evidenced by increased postoperative concentrations of D-dimer, plasminogen, and plasmin inhibitor. Differences between the 2 groups could not be detected for any variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Elective surgery with limited tissue trauma induced hemostatic activation in dogs, which led to hypercoagulability after surgery. A difference between the ovariohysterectomy and ovariectomy groups was not detected. Thromboelastography can be used on plasma samples and may be useful for evaluating patterns over time.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research