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  • Author or Editor: John W. Ludders x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine accuracy and precision of a point-of-care hemoglobinometer for measuring hemoglobin concentration and estimating PCV in horses.

Design—Prospective trial.

Animals—55 horses.

Procedure—Blood samples were obtained from 43 horses examined at a veterinary teaching hospital. Hemoglobin concentration was measured with the hemoglobinometer and by means of the standard cyanmethemoglobin method; PCV was measured by centrifugation. Blood samples were also obtained from 12 healthy horses, and PCV of aliquots of these samples was altered to approximately 5 to 80% by removing or adding plasma. Hemoglobin concentration and PCV were then measured.

Results—For samples from the clinic patients, hemoglobin concentrations obtained with the hemoglobinometer were less than concentrations obtained with the cyanmethemoglobin method; however, there was a linear relationship between concentrations obtained with the 2 methods. Breed, sex, body weight, and duration of sample storage did not significantly affect the difference between hemoglobin concentrations obtained with the 2 methods. There was a significant linear relationship between PCV and hemoglobinometer hemoglobin concentration (PCV = [2.83 X hemoglobin concentration] − 0.62). For samples from the healthy horses, a substantial negative bias was evident with the hemoglobinometer when hemoglobin concentration exceeded 16 g/dL.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that this hemoglobinometer is reasonably accurate and precise when used to measure hemoglobin concentration in blood samples from horses with a hemoglobin concentration < 16 g/dL. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:78–83)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether dogs that received eyedrops containing phenylephrine and scopolamine would have a higher mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) when anesthetized than would dogs that did not receive the eyedrops.

Animals—37 nondiabetic and 29 diabetic dogs anesthetized for phacoemulsification and 15 nondiabetic dogs anesthetized for corneal ulcer repair (control dogs).

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to identify study dogs. Dogs undergoing phacoemulsification received 2 types of eyedrops (10% phenylephrine hydrochloride and 0.3% scopolamine hydrobromide) 4 times during a 2-hour period prior to the procedure. Control dogs did not receive these eyedrops. Heart rate and MAP were measured before surgery in all dogs 10 and 5 minutes before, at the time of (t0), and 5 (t5) and 10 (t10) minutes after atracurium administration.

Results—MAP was greater in the 2 groups that received the eyedrops than in the control group at t0 and t5; at t10, it was greater only for the nondiabetic dogs that received eyedrops. Nine nondiabetic dogs and 1 diabetic dog anesthetized for phacoemulsification had at least 1 MAP value > 131 mm Hg; 73% of MAP values > 131 mm Hg were detected within 10 minutes after atracurium administration. At no time did a control dog have an MAP value > 131 mm Hg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Anesthetized dogs pretreated with eyedrops containing phenylephrine and scopolamine had higher MAP values than dogs that did not receive the eyedrops, suggesting the drops caused hypertension. Atracurium may interact with the eyedrops and contribute to the hypertension.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, and butorphanol premedication on the difficulty and time required to pass an endoscope into the stomach and duodenum of cats anesthetized with ketamine and isoflurane.

Design—Randomized complete block crossover study.

Animals—8 purpose-bred adult female cats.

Procedures—Each cat was premedicated and anesthetized 4 times with an interval of at least 7 days between procedures. Cats were premedicated with hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, or butorphanol administered IM. Twenty minutes after premedication, sedation was assessed by use of a subjective ordinal scale. Cats received ketamine administered IM, and 10 minutes later a cuffed orotracheal tube was placed and anesthesia maintained with isoflurane. Cats breathed spontaneously throughout the procedure. When end-tidal isoflurane concentration was stable at 1.4% for 15 minutes, endoscopy was begun. The times required to pass the endoscope through the cardiac and pyloric sphincters were recorded, and the difficulty of endoscope passage was scored by use of a subjective ordinal scale.

Results—No significant differences in difficulty or time required to pass the endoscope through the cardiac and pyloric sphincters were found among premedicant groups. Premedication with medetomidine resulted in the greatest degree of sedation and longest time to return to sternal recumbency.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that hydromorphone, hydromorphone and glycopyrrolate, medetomidine, and butorphanol at the doses tested can be used satisfactorily to premedicate cats prior to general anesthesia for gastroduodenoscopy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:540–544)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine hepatic effects of halothane and isoflurane anesthesia in young healthy goats.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical trial.

Animals—24 healthy 9-month-old female goats.

Procedure—Goats were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and anesthetized with halothane (n = 12) or isoflurane (12) while undergoing tendon surgery. End-tidal halothane and isoflurane concentrations were maintained at 0.9 and 1.2 times the minimal alveolar concentrations, respectively, and ventilation was controlled. Venous blood samples were collected approximately 15 minutes after xylazine was administered and 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia, and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities and bilirubin concentration were measured. Goats were euthanatized 25 or 62 days after anesthesia, and postmortem liver specimens were submitted for histologic examination.

Results—All goats recovered from anesthesia and survived until euthanasia. Serum SDH, GGT, and ALP activities and bilirubin concentration did not increase after anesthesia, but serum AST activity was significantly increased. However, serum hepatic enzyme activities were within reference limits at all times in all except 1 goat in which serum AST activity was high 24 and 48 hours after anesthesia. This goat had been anesthetized with halothane and had the longest duration of anesthesia. No clinically important abnormalities were seen on histologic examination of liver specimens.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that use of halothane or isoflurane for anesthesia in young healthy goats is unlikely to cause hepatic injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:1697–1700)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association