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  • Author or Editor: John V. Steiner x
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Objective—To assess efficacy of Giardia vaccination as a treatment for giardiasis in experimentally infected cats.

Design—Original study.

Animals—16 young-adult cats.

Procedure—Cats were experimentally infected by orogastric administration of Giardia cysts. On weeks 4, 6, and 10, cats in the treatment group (n = 8) were given Giardia vaccine SC. For the first 28 weeks after infection, 3 fecal samples from each cat were examined weekly for Giardia cysts, and cyst numbers were counted. Fecal consistency was scored daily for the duration of the study. Results from vaccinated and unvaccinated cats were compared by logistic regression.

Results—All cats became infected and were shedding Giardia cysts by the end of week 2. Throughout the study, diarrhea was rare and was mild and transient when it did occur. By week 28, 5 of 8 vaccinated cats and 7 of 8 control cats had patent Giardia infections. Magnitude of infection, based on number of fecal samples with cysts and number of cysts per sample, decreased progressively in both groups over time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of 3 doses of a Giardia vaccine did not completely eliminate the organism from experimentally infected cats in the study period. Since clinical signs were minimal in both groups of cats, it could not be determined whether vaccination lessened severity of clinical disease. Results may have been negatively influenced by the large inoculation dose. Whether Giardia vaccination is an effective treatment for giardiasis in naturally infected cats remains to be determined. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:1548–1551)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether treatment with a preparation of Propionibacterium acnes would improve pregnancy and live foal rates in mares with persistent endometritis.

Design—Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Animals—95 mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis.

Procedures—Mares were treated with P acnes or placebo (both administered IV) on days 0, 2, and 6. No attempt was made to alter additional treatments administered by attending veterinarians. Information on breeding history, physical examination findings, results of cytologic examination and microbial culture of uterine samples, additional treatments administered, breeding dates, results of pregnancy examinations, whether a live foal was produced, and reactions to treatment was recorded.

Results—In multivariate logistic regression models, mare age, year of entry into the study, and first breeding within 8 days after first treatment with P acnes or placebo were significantly associated with pregnancy. Fewer number of cycles bred and younger age were significantly associated with delivery of a live foal in a separate multivariate analysis. Results of multivariate logistic regression modeling indicated that mares treated with P acnes were more likely to become pregnant and to deliver a live foal, compared with placebo-treated controls.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of P acnes as an adjunct to conventional treatments in mares with a cytologic diagnosis of persistent endometritis improved pregnancy and live foal rates. The optimal effect was detected in mares bred during the interval extending from 2 days before to 8 days after first treatment with P acnes.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the optimal sample handling and processing conditions for the carbon 13 (13C)-labeled aminopyrine demethylation blood test (ADBT; phase 1) and determine the reference range for test results (phase 2) in apparently healthy dogs.

Animals—44 apparently healthy dogs (phase 1, 19 dogs; phase 2, 44 dogs).

Procedures—In phase 1, a blood sample from each dog was collected before and 45 minutes after (day 0) IV administration of 13C-labeled aminopyrine (2 mg/kg); aliquots were immediately transferred into tubes containing sodium heparin and hydrochloric acid (samples A and B), sodium heparin alone (samples C, D, and E), or sodium fluoride (sample F). Hydrochloric acid was added to samples C through F at days 7, 14, 21, and 21, respectively. The baseline and 45-minute samples' absolute 13C:12C ratios were determined via fractional mass spectrometry on day 0 (control sample A) or 21 (samples B through F) and used to calculate the percentage dose of 13C recovered in CO2 extracted from samples (PCD). In phase 2, blood samples from each dog were collected into tubes containing sodium fluoride and processed within 3 weeks.

Results—Compared with the control sample value, PCDs for samples C through E differed significantly, whereas PCD in sample F did not. The 13C-ADBT–derived PCD reference range (central 95th percentile) for apparently healthy dogs was 0.08% to 0.2%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glycolytic CO2 production in canine blood samples collected during 13C-ADBTs was sufficiently inhibited by sodium fluoride to allow delayed sample analysis and avoid transportation of hydrochloric acid–treated samples.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research