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Objective—To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay performed on pooled nasal swab specimens, compared with virus isolation performed on individual nasal swab specimens by use of 2 cell culture lines for detection of swine influenza A viruses.

Sample Population—900 nasal swab specimens obtained from pigs at an abattoir and 62 nasal swab specimens submitted for diagnostic testing.

Procedure—Primers were chosen to amplify a conserved portion of the influenza virus matrix gene. Assay sensitivity was initially determined by testing serial dilutions of various subtypes of swine influenza viruses. Sensitivity and specificity were confirmed by use of nasal swab specimens with or without addition of known concentrations of influenza virus and further validated by testing nasal swab specimens obtained through an abattoir surveillance program or submitted for diagnostic testing. Aliquots of specimens were pooled in sets of 10, and results of real-time RT-PCR assays were compared with results of virus isolation of individual specimens in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and mink lung (Mv1Lu) cells.

Results—Real-time RT-PCR assay was highly specific (100%) and sensitive (88% to 100%). Among the 16 viruses isolated, 3 grew only in Mv1Lu cells and 3 grew only in MDCK cells.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that real-time RT-PCR assay is a fast and accurate test for screening numerous nasal swab specimens for swine influenza virus. Some viruses were isolated in only MDCK or Mv1Lu cells, indicating that use of > 1 cell line may be required to isolate a broad range of influenza A viruses. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:119–124)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma neurofilament light chain (pNfL) concentration was altered in Labrador Retrievers with idiopathic laryngeal paralysis (ILP) compared to a control population. A secondary aim was to investigate relationships between age, height, weight, and body mass index in the populations studied.


123 dogs: 62 purebred Labrador Retrievers with ILP (ILP Cases) and 61 age-matched healthy medium- to large-breed dogs (Controls).


Dogs, recruited from August 1, 2016, to March 1, 2022, were categorized as case or control based on a combination of physical exam, neurologic exam, and history. Blood plasma was collected, and pNfL concentration was measured. pNfL concentrations were compared between ILP Cases and Controls. Covariables including age, height, and weight were collected. Relationships between pNfL and covariables were analyzed within and between groups. In dogs where 2 plasma samples were available from differing time points, pNfL concentrations were measured to evaluate alterations over time.


No significant difference in pNfL concentration was found between ILP Cases and Control (P = .36). pNfL concentrations had moderate negative correlations with weight and height in the Control group; other variables did not correlate with pNfL concentrations in ILP Case or Control groups. pNfL concentrations do not correlate with ILP disease status or duration in Labrador Retrievers.


There is no evidence that pNfL levels are altered due to ILP disease duration or progression when compared with healthy controls. When evaluating pNfL concentrations in the dog, weight and height should be considered.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research