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Summary

The endometrial response of mares to repair of third-degree rectovestibular lacerations was evaluated. Endometrial biopsy specimens from 8 mares with third-degree rectovestibular laceration were obtained immediately before surgery and from 9 to 15 days after repair. Presurgical endometrial biopsy specimens were classified as category I for 2 mares; category II, attributable to slight endometritis, for 5 mares; and category III, attributable to moderate-to-severe endometritis, for 1 mare. Within 15 days after rectovestibular repair, all endometrial biopsy specimens were classified as category I. Results indicated that mares with third-degree rectovestibular injuries are candidates for breeding by artificial insemination by 2 weeks after repair of the injury.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether addition of epinephrine to a lidocaine solution would prolong and potentiate the efficacy of a palmar digital nerve block (PDNB) in horses.

ANIMALS 6 adult horses with naturally occurring forefoot lameness.

PROCEDURES Initially, a PDNB with a 2% lidocaine solution was performed on the affected foot of each horse. Three days later, the PDNB was repeated with a 1% lidocaine solution or a 1% lidocaine solution containing epinephrine (dilution, 1:200,000). After another 3-day washout period, the PDNB was repeated with the treatment opposite that administered for the second PDNB. Gait was analyzed with a computerized lameness analysis system and heart rate and extent of skin sensation between the heel bulbs of the blocked foot were evaluated at predetermined times for 2 hours after each PDNB.

RESULTS Efficacy and duration of the PDNB did not differ significantly between the 2% and 1% lidocaine treatments. The addition of epinephrine to the 1% lidocaine solution improved the efficacy and prolonged the duration of the PDNB. It also resulted in a positive correlation between skin desensitization and amelioration of lameness. Median heart rate remained unchanged throughout the observation period for all 3 treatments. No adverse effects associated with the PDNBs were observed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Addition of epinephrine (dilution, 1:200,000) to a 1% lidocaine solution improved the efficacy and prolonged the duration of a PDNB in horses with naturally occurring lameness and might be clinically useful for lameness evaluations and standing surgery of the forefoot of horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the speed of onset and analgesic effect of mepivacaine deposited within or immediately outside the neurovascular bundle at the base of the proximal sesamoid bones in horses.

ANIMALS

6 horses with naturally occurring forefoot-related lameness.

PROCEDURES

In a crossover study design, horses were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 treatments first, with the second treatment administered 3 to 7 days later. Trotting gait was analyzed with an inertial sensor–based motion analysis system immediately before treatment to determine degree of lameness. Afterward, ultrasound guidance was used to inject 2% mepivacaine hydrochloride around the palmar digital nerves of the affected forelimb at the level of the base of the proximal sesamoid bones either within the subcircumneural space or outside the circumneural sheath. After injection, gait was reevaluated at 5-minute intervals for 45 minutes.

RESULTS

Mepivacaine deposition outside the circumneural sheath did not resolve lameness in any horse; for 3 horses, the mean time to 70% reduction of initial vertical head movement was 13.3 minutes, and the remaining 3 horses had no such reduction at any point. Mepivacaine deposition within the subcircumneural space resulted in a mean time to 70% reduction of initial vertical head movement of 6.7 minutes and mean time to resolution of lameness of 21.7 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that when peripheral nerves of horses lie within a sheath, local anesthetic solution should be deposited within the sheath for an effective nerve block. If local anesthetic solution is deposited outside the sheath, the nerve block may yield erroneous results.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To develop a high-speed, continuous-flow, automated plasmapheresis procedure for the high-volume harvest of equine plasma in accordance with current good manufacturing practice.

Animals—143 horses (predominantly draft breeds) between 3 and 10 years of age at the time of purchase.

Procedures—Adaptations were made to automated plasmapheresis instruments and sterile disposable collection sets, which allowed for dual-instrument, continuous-flow operation. Donor horses were connected to the apparatus via 2 catheters (1 inserted in each jugular vein). The instruments removed whole blood from donors, fractionated the blood, diverted plasma to collection bags, and simultaneously returned concentrated cells to the donors. Plasmapheresis was performed on donor horses at 14-day intervals with a maximum of 22 mL of plasma/kg of donor body weight harvested during each plasmapheresis procedure.

Results—During a 5-year period, 3,240 plasmapheresis procedures were performed and > 50,000 L of sterile equine plasma was harvested in accordance with current good manufacturing practice. Donors typically remained calm during the plasmapheresis procedures and tolerated the procedures well. The high-volume and frequent plasma harvest did not result in sustained hypoproteinemia in donor horses. Adverse events associated with the automated plasmapheresis technique were infrequent, and the recurrence of adverse events was minimized by making minor adjustments to the procedure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The automated plasmapheresis procedure described in this report can be used to safely harvest equine plasma or to perform therapeutic plasmapheresis in horses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of intensive serial plasmapheresis on total plasma protein and total IgG concentrations in donor horses involved in a plasmapheresis program.

Animals—18 horses (13 mares and 5 geldings; 13 Belgians, 3 Percherons, 1 Standardbred, and 1 warmblood) ranging from 7 to 14 years of age (mean ± SD, 10 ± 3 years) and weighing 822 ± 128 kg.

Procedures—Horses from which 22 mL of plasma/kg of donor body weight was harvested at 14-day intervals for a minimum of 8 consecutive plasmapheresis donations were retrospectively selected for use in the evaluation. Automated plasmapheresis procedures were performed by use of 2 modified plasmapheresis instruments/donor horse. Plasma samples were obtained at each donation and used for determination of total protein and total IgG concentrations. Total plasma protein concentrations were determined via refractometry. A commercially available ELISA was used to determine total equine IgG concentrations.

Results—The 18 donor horses were used in 8 to 19 serial donations (mean ± SD, 13 ± 3 donations) during the study. Donor horses had significant decreases in both plasma protein and IgG concentrations over the study period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serial plasmapheresis procedures caused significant decreases in both plasma protein and IgG concentrations in donor horses; however, decreases were not physiologically relevant. Performing plasmapheresis in horses in accordance with the evaluated automated plasmapheresis procedures did not result in a critical decrease in total plasma protein or total IgG concentrations.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Objective

To evaluate clinical and laboratory findings for horses treated medically for ileal impactions.

Design

Retrospective case series.

Animals

10 horses with primary ileal impaction that were treated successfully with medical treatment alone.

Procedure

Medical records were reviewed for all horses with naturally developing ileal impaction seen at our hospital between 1990 and 1994.

Results

Transrectal palpation revealed an impaction in the midabdominal area in all horses. Generalized distention of the small intestine was evident in 6 horses, whereas 4 horses were examined early in the course of the condition and did not have intestinal distention. Treatment consisted of intravenous administration of a balanced electrolyte solution, nasogastric intubation and siphonage, and administration of analgesics. Mineral oil was administered after gastric reflux had ceased. Mean time for resolution of ileal impaction was 11.7 hours.

Clinical Implications

Medical treatment may be a viable alternative for horses that cannot have surgery, provided persistent signs of severe pain or progressive gaseous distention of the small intestine are not features of the condition. Improvement of cardiovascular status, reduction in signs of abdominal pain, decrease in distention of loops of small intestine during repeated transrectal examination, softening of the impaction, and decreases in amounts of gastric reflux were indicative of a response to medical treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:898–900)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

SUMMARY

Twelve ponies were used to evaluate the reliability of an abdominal adhesion model and the efficacy of intraperitoneal infusion of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in preventing abdominal adhesions. A celiotomy was performed on each of the 12 ponies and the serosa of the distal portion of the jejunum was abraded with a dry gauze sponge at 5 locations. In addition to the serosal damage, a single 2-0 chromic gut suture was placed through the seromuscular layer of the jejunum in the center of the abraded area. After closure of the celiotomy, a 1% solution of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (7 ml/kg of body weight) was infused into the peritoneal cavity of 6 ponies. The other ponies served as untreated controls. All ponies were euthanatized 14 days after surgery.

All ponies in the control group had abdominal adhesions at the time of necropsy. Four of the 6 ponies in the treatment group were free of adhesions. There was a significant (P < 0.0001) difference in the total number of adhesions between the 2 groups.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research