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Objective—To validate a method to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in conscious monkeys via transcutaneous radiation detection after IV injection of technetium Tc 99m pentatate(99mTc-DTPA).
Animals—4 healthy rhesus monkeys.
Procedures—On day 1, each monkey was anesthetized, lothalamate sodium I 125 (125l-iothalamate) was administered via continuous rate infusion (0.0037 MBq/min); blood and urine samples were obtained for determination of 125l-iothalamate plasma clearance variables and estimation of GFR. One dose of 99mTc-DTPA (74 MBq/kg, IV) was also administered during the 125l-iothalamate plasma clearance test, and transcutaneous measurements of technetium 99m-emitted radiation were obtained by use of an ambulatory renal monitor (ARM) applied to a brachium of each monkey. Determination of GFR by use of the ARM was repeated on days 8 and 45 in the same monkeys without anesthesia.
Results—Sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the 2 methods were similar. By use of the ARM, GFR determined by use of the renal rate constant (κGFR) was calculated; the value obtained on day 1 under anesthesia was similar to values determined via 125l-iothalamate plasma clearance testing on the same day, but was 16% to 23% less than that measured on days 8 and 45 in conscious monkeys.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ARM method for assessment of GFR was less invasive, faster, and more convenient than the standard clearance method, but yielded comparable results. The need to train animals and size restrictions of the device may limit the use of this technique in other nonhuman animals.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of ceftiofur hydrochloride sterile suspension administered parenterally for treatment of acute postpartum metritis (APM) in dairy cows.
Design—Multilocation, randomized block, field trial.
Animals—406 cows in the first 14 days postpartum.
Procedure—Cows with rectal temperatures ≥ 39.5°C (103.1°F) without clinical signs of respiratory or gastrointestinal tract disease and with a fetid vaginal discharge were allocated randomly in blocks of 3 to 3 treatment groups: sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution administered at a dosage of 2 mL/45.4 kg (2 mL/100 lb), SC or IM, once daily for 5 days (control); or ceftiofur hydrochloride administered at a dosage of 1.1 or 2.2 mg of ceftiofur equivalents (CE)/kg (0.5 or 1 mg/lb, respectively), SC or IM, once daily for 5 days. Cows were evaluated on days 6, 10, and 14, and clinical cure or failure to cure was determined. Clinical cure was defined as no additional antimicrobial treatment administered, rectal temperature < 39.5°C, and absence of a fetid vaginal discharge.
Results—On day 14, clinical cure rates were 77%, 65%, and 62% for the 2.2 mg of CE/kg, 1.1 mg of CE/kg, and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were detected in clinical cure rates between control and treatment groups on day 10 or 6.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ceftiofur hydrochloride administered at a dosage of 2.2 mg of CE/kg, SC or IM, once daily for 5 days was efficacious for treatment of APM in dairy cows. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1634–1639)