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- Author or Editor: John R. Dodam x
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Objective—To determine effects of selegiline hydrochloride, phenylpropanolamine (PPA), or a combination of both on physiologic and behavioral variables in dogs.
Animals—40 adult hound-type dogs.
Procedure—Dogs were assigned to 4 groups. One group received selegiline (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) and PPA (1.1 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h), a second group received selegiline alone, a third group received PPA alone, and a fourth group received neither drug. Dogs were observed 3 times/d throughout the 30-day study (daily during the first week, on alternate days during the next 2 weeks, and again daily during the final week). Observers recorded rectal temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, oscillometric blood pressure, and lead-II ECG and assessed 4 behaviors, using an analogue scale. Variables were compared among treatment groups by use of a 2-factor ANOVA with data categorized into three 10-day treatment periods. A similar comparison was made among treatment groups with data categorized by time of observation (morning, afternoon, or evening) for all study days.
Results—Variables did not differ among groups at study initiation. Pulse rate was the only variable that differed significantly among treatment groups during the study. During the first 10 days of treatment, dogs receiving PPA had a lower pulse rate than dogs that did not. Although signs of illness were apparent in a few dogs, illness did not appear to be related to treatment.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Adverse effects were not detected after administration of selegiline, PPA, or a combination of the drugs in healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:827–832)
Objective—To determine whether anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves abolishes reflex-evoked muscle action potentials (REMP) during tooth-pulp stimulation in halothane-anesthetized cats.
Animals—8 healthy adult cats.
Procedure—In halothane-anesthetized cats, an anodal electrode was attached to the tooth to be stimulated and a platinum needle cathodal electrode was inserted in adjacent gingival mucosa. Cathodal and anodal electrodes were moved to the upper and lower canine, upper fourth premolar, and lower first molar teeth for stimulation; baseline REMP was recorded. A 25-gauge 1-cm needle was inserted 0.5 cm into the infraorbital canal. A 25-gauge 1-cm needle was inserted 1 cm rostral to the angular process of the ramus, and advanced 0.5 cm along the medial aspect. Chloroprocaine was injected at each site. Each tooth was stimulated every 10 minutes for 90 minutes.
Results—REMP was abolished within 10 minutes for all upper teeth, except for the upper canine tooth in 1 cat, and abolished within 10 minutes for lower teeth in 4 cats. In 1 cat, REMP was not abolished in the lower first molar tooth. In 3 cats, REMP was not abolished in the lower canine and first molar teeth. At 90 minutes, REMP was restored for all teeth except the lower canine tooth in 1 cat, for which REMP was restored at 120 minutes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Regional anesthesia of the infraorbital and inferior alveolar nerves may provide dental analgesia in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1245–1247)
Objective—To evaluate the clinical and immunologic response in healthy dogs to infusions of human serum albumin (HSA).
Animals—9 healthy purpose-bred mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Each dog was administered a 25% HSA solution once or twice. Various physical examination and laboratory variables were serially evaluated. Antibody against HSA was assayed before and after infusion by use of an ELISA. Intradermal testing was also conducted. A repeated-measures ANOVA or Friedman repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare results for the variables.
Results—Adverse clinical reactions were observed after the first or second infusion in 3 dogs. Anaphylactoid reactions were observed in 1 of 9 dogs during the first infusion and in 2 of 2 dogs administered a second infusion. Two dogs developed severe edema and urticaria 6 or 7 days after an initial infusion. All dogs developed anti-HSA antibodies. Positive responses for ID tests were observed in 8 of 9 dogs. Short-term increases were detected in blood protein, total bilirubin, and calcium concentrations after HSA infusion. Serum cholesterol concentrations and platelet counts decreased after HSA infusion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of HSA resulted in profound reactions in 2 of 9 dogs administered a single infusion and in 2 of 2 dogs administered a second infusion. This indicates that there is risk of life-threatening adverse reactions to HSA infusion in healthy dogs.
Objective—To determine the effects of ketamine hydrochloride on hemodynamic and immunologic alterations associated with experimentally induced endotoxemia in dogs.
Animals—9 mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—In a crossover study, dogs were randomly allocated to receive ketamine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, followed by IV infusion at a rate of 0.12 mg/kg/h for 2.5 hours) or control solution (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, 0.25 mL, IV, followed by IV infusion at a rate of 0.5 mL/h for 2.5 hours). Onset of infusion was time 0. At 30 minutes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/kg, IV) was administered. Heart rate (HR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α activity, and a CBC were evaluated.
Results—Mean SAP was significantly reduced in dogs administered ketamine or saline solution at 2 and 2.5 hours, compared with values at time 0. However, there was no significant difference between treatments. At 1, 2, and 2.5 hours, dogs administered ketamine had a significantly lower HR than dogs administered saline solution. Although plasma TNF-α activity significantly increased, compared with values at time 0 for both groups, ketamine-treated dogs had significantly lower peak plasma TNF-α activity 1.5 hours after LPS administration. All dogs had significant leukopenia and neutropenia after LPS administration, with no differences detected between ketamine and saline solution treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine had immunomodulating effects in dogs with experimentally induced endotoxemia (namely, blunting of plasma TNF-α activity). However, it had little effect on hemodynamic stability and no effect on WBC counts.
Objective—To assess the reliability and accuracy of a predictive rectal thermometer, an infrared auricular thermometer designed for veterinary use, and a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip for measurement of core body temperature over various temperature conditions in dogs.
Animals—8 purpose-bred dogs.
Procedures—A minimum of 7 days prior to study commencement, a subcutaneous temperature-sensing microchip was implanted in 1 of 3 locations (interscapular, lateral aspect of shoulder, or sacral region) in each dog. For comparison with temperatures measured via rectal thermometer, infrared auricular thermometer, and microchip, core body temperature was measured via a thermistor-tipped pulmonary artery (TTPA) catheter. Hypothermia was induced during anesthesia at the time of TTPA catheter placement; on 3 occasions after placement of the catheter, hyperthermia was induced via administration of a low dose of endotoxin. Near-simultaneous duplicate temperature measurements were recorded from the TTPA catheter, the rectal thermometer, auricular thermometer, and subcutaneous microchips during hypothermia, euthermia, and hyperthermia. Reliability (variability) of temperature measurement for each device and agreement between each device measurement and core body temperature were assessed.
Results—Variability between duplicate near-simultaneous temperature measurements was greatest for the auricular thermometer and least for the TTPA catheter. Measurements obtained by use of the rectal thermometer were in closest agreement with core body temperature; for all other devices, temperature readings typically underestimated core body temperature.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Among the 3 methods of temperature measurement, rectal thermometry provided the most accurate estimation of core body temperature in dogs.
Objective—To identify complications associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dogs and assess owner perceptions of outcome.
Animals—193 dogs that underwent unilateral or bilateral TPLO (253 TPLOs total) between November 1997 and March 2001.
Procedure—Complications associated with the surgical procedure were recorded. A questionnaire was sent to owners of all dogs to assess their perceptions of outcome.
Results—Complications were identified in 47 of the 193 (24.4%) dogs and in association with 52 of the 253 (20.6%) TPLOs. Dogs that underwent bilateral TPLOs during a single anesthetic episode had a higher complication rate than did dogs that underwent unilateral TPLO and dogs that underwent bilateral TPLOs during separate anesthetic episodes. Body weight, surgery time, whether a meniscal release or meniscectomy was performed, and extent of cruciate ligament damage were not associated with whether complications occurred. One hundred forty-one of 151 (93%) owners who responded to the questionnaire were satisfied with the outcome of the surgery. Assessments of outcome were not significantly different between owners of dogs that had complications and owners of dogs that did not.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that complications developed in approximately 25% of dogs undergoing TPLO for treatment of a cranial cruciate ligament injury but that most complications responded to appropriate treatment, and development of complications did not affect owner assessments of outcome. There was a higher incidence of complications when bilateral TPLOs were performed during a single anesthetic episode. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222:1726–1732)
Objective—To assess the intraoperative and postoperative clinical effects and histologic effects of intracameral administration of α-chymotrypsin in clinically normal dogs undergoing standard intracapsular lens extraction (ICLE).
Animals—6 young adult male dogs without evidence of systemic or ocular disease.
Procedures—All dogs underwent bilateral ICLE 7 minutes following injection of 75 U of α-chymotrypsin or an identical volume (0.5 mL) of a commercially available balanced saline solution (BSS) into the posterior chamber of the eye. Ease of lens extraction was subjectively assessed and intraoperative intraocular hemorrhage and fibrin accumulation scored. For 27 days after surgery, ocular hyperemia and discharge, chemosis, corneal edema, hyphema, and aqueous flare were scored, and intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured. Thirty days after surgery, histologic evidence of anterior synechia, collapse of and inflammation within the iridocorneal angle, and iritis were scored.
Results—In 5 of 6 dogs, the surgeon was able to correctly identify the eye treated with α-chymotrypsin on the basis of ease of lens extraction. Mean intraoperative intraocular hemorrhage and fibrin scores for BSS-treated eyes were significantly higher than for α-chymotrypsin-treated eyes. Postoperatively, there were no significant differences between treatments for any clinical variables, including IOP Histologic scores were not significantly different between treatments for any variable. Vision was lost as a result of glaucoma in 1 α-chymotrypsin-treated eye and 1 BSS-treated eye.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intracameral administration of 75 U of α-chymotrypsin 7 minutes before ICLE facilitated lensectomy without apparent adverse effects in clinically normal dogs.
To compare the efficacy of 4 cleaning protocols applied to endotracheal tubes (ETTs) collected from anesthetized dogs.
100 ETTs (25 per protocol).
A 10-question survey designed to determine ETT reuse and cleaning practices was distributed via email to a sample of veterinary anesthesiologists. Informed by survey results, 4 ETT cleaning protocols were selected for use in a prospective clinical study. Dogs were intubated with sterile polyvinyl chloride ETTs. At extubation, each ETT was cultured for bacterial growth, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols [water scrub (P1), detergent scrub (P2), detergent scrub and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) soak (P3), or detergent scrub and bleach soak (P4)], and cultured again after drying. Bacterial genera were identified using mass spectrometry and 16s rRNA sequencing. Proportions of ETTs exhibiting no post-cleaning growth were compared between protocols using the Fisher exact test with Bonferroni correction.
Half of survey respondents that reused ETTs did not sterilize them before reuse, cleaning methods varied widely, and no reported methods were evidence-based. After use, the number of ETTs exhibiting no post-cleaning bacterial growth were 15/25 (60%), 14/25 (56%), 20/25 (80%), and 17/25 (68%) for protocols P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively. Pairwise comparisons did not reveal any statistically significant differences between protocols.
In small animal patients, some veterinary anesthesiologists reuse ETTs without sterilization and cleaning protocols vary widely. No differences between the studied protocols were identified. Further research is necessary to identify a safe, efficacious ETT cleaning protocol for use in small animal practice.