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Objective—To determine whether use of serologic evaluation of a sentinel sample of calves or cows for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) would accurately predict whether an animal persistently infected with BVDV could be detected in beef herds.

Sample Population—27 cow-calf herds in which the status of persistently infected calves was not known and 11 herds known to have persistently infected calves.

Procedure—Detection of persistently infected calves was determined through immunohistochemical testing of tissue obtained at necropsy of all calves that died during calving season and skin (ear notch) specimens obtained from all young stock in the fall of 2002. Serum samples were collected from 30 springborn calves and 10 mature cows.

Results—Optimum serologic test performance at time of weaning was detected when 10 calves were evaluated. At least 3 of 10 randomly selected calves were likely to have a titer > 1:1,000 against BVDV type I or II in 53% of herds in which a persistently infected calf was detected during that year (sensitivity, 53%). However, at least 3 of 10 randomly selected calves were also likely to have a titer > 1:1,000 in 20% of herds that did not have a persistently infected calf detected during that year (specificity, 80%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Despite the use of a number of various cutoff values and sample sizes, serologic evaluation of a small number of calves or cows could not be used to accurately predict the presence of persistently infected cattle in a herd. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:825–834)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To describe the degree of and variability in the level of client compliance and identify determinants of client compliance with short-term administration of antimicrobial medications to dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Sample Population—90 owners of dogs prescribed antimicrobials.

Procedure—Eligible clients were invited to participate when antimicrobial medications were dispensed. Data were collected during a follow-up appointment by use of a client questionnaire, residual pill count, and return of an electronic medication monitoring device. Attending veterinarians also completed a questionnaire that asked them to predict client compliance. Methods of assessing compliance were compared with nonparametric tests. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate potential determinants of compliance.

Results—Median compliance rates of 97% of prescribed container openings, 91% of days when the correct number of doses were given, and 64% of doses given on time as assessed by the electronic medication monitoring devices were significantly lower than the median compliance rates of 100% for client self-report of missing doses and pill count. Veterinarians were unable to predict client compliance. The dosage regimen significantly determined compliance. Clients giving antimicrobials once or twice daily were 9 times more likely to be 100% compliant, compared with 3 times daily dosing.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of reported missed doses and pill counts was a significant predictor of compliance as measured by electronic monitoring. Electronic monitoring caps provided useful information only when they were used appropriately. Asking clients about missed doses and performing pill counts are the most practical assessments of compliance in practice. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:567–574)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Desoxycorticosterone pivalate was administered im to juvenile Beagles at 0, 2.2, 6.6, or 11 mg/kg of body weight daily over a consecutive 3-day period every 28 days (equivalent to a cumulative monthly dosage of 0, 6.6, 19.8, or 33 mg/kg) for 6 months. Polyuria, polydipsia, and decreases in serum potassium and bun concentrations were detected while the dogs were being treated. Transient increases in serum sodium concentrations also were detected. The treated males had significant decreases in body weight gain, resulting in an 18% decrease in body weight in the 11-mg/kg dosage group, compared with the controls. The weights of the adrenal glands, epididymides, and testes also were lower in the treated males. Organ weights for the 2.2, 6.6, and 11-mg/kg dosage groups were: 86, 79, and 69%, respectively, of the controls (adrenal glands); 80, 70, and 68%, respectively, of the controls (epididymides); and, 79, 75, and 67%, respectively, of the controls (testes). When normalized to body weight, these decreases in organ weight were still dosage-dependent, but the differences were less remarkable. In contrast, the relative weight (to body weight) of the kidneys (males and females) and of the thyroid and parathyroid glands (males) were higher dosage-dependently. All of the treatment-related effects, other than organ and body weight changes, appeared to be reversible following the cessation of treatment. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that treatment with desoxycorticosterone pivalate could be tolerated, even when given at dosages 15-fold the therapeutic dosage of 2.2 mg/kg every 25 days.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To investigate effects of lidocaine hydrochloride administered IV on mucosal inflammation in ischemia-injured jejunum of horses treated with flunixin meglumine.

Animals—24 horses.

Procedures—Horses received saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (SS; 1 mL/50 kg, IV [1 dose]), flunixin meglumine (1 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), lidocaine (bolus [1.3 mg/kg] and constant rate infusion [0.05 mg/kg/min], IV, during and after recovery from surgery), or both flunixin and lidocaine (n = 6/group). During surgery, blood flow was occluded for 2 hours in 2 sections of jejunum in each horse. Uninjured and ischemia-injured jejunal specimens were collected after the ischemic period and after euthanasia 18 hours later for histologic assessment and determination of cyclooxygenase (COX) expression (via western blot procedures). Plasma samples collected prior to (baseline) and 8 hours after the ischemic period were analyzed for prostanoid concentrations.

Results—Immediately after the ischemic period, COX-2 expression in horses treated with lidocaine alone was significantly less than expression in horses treated with SS or flunixin alone. Eighteen hours after the ischemic period, mucosal neutrophil counts in horses treated with flunixin alone were significantly higher than counts in other treatment groups. Compared with baseline plasma concentrations, postischemia prostaglandin E2 metabolite and thromboxane B2 concentrations increased in horses treated with SS and in horses treated with SS or lidocaine alone, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with ischemia-injured jejunum, lidocaine administered IV reduced plasma prostaglandin E2 metabolite concentration and mucosal COX-2 expression. Coadministration of lidocaine with flunixin ameliorated the flunixin-induced increase in mucosal neutrophil counts.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research