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  • Author or Editor: John P. Loftus x
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Abstract

Objective—To assess expression pattern and subcellular compartmentalization of 5-lipoxygenase in cutaneous, UV radiation–induced, and oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in cats and determine the effects of cyclooxygenase or 5-lipoxygenase inhibition on proliferation or apoptosis in a feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCCF1) cell line.

Sample—60 archived paraffin-embedded samples of SCCs from 60 cats and SCCF1 cells.

Procedures—Retrospective immunohistochemical analysis of the archived samples of SCCs (20 cutaneous, 20 UV radiation–induced, and 20 oral tumors) was performed. Cell culture proliferation assays involving SCCF1 cells were performed, and tepoxalin-induced apoptosis and signaling were examined via western blotting and annexin V staining.

Results—Immunohistochemically, staining for 5-lipoxygenase was most frequently of greatest intensity in oral SCCs, whereas staining of cutaneous and UV radiation–induced lesions had less consistent 5-lipoxygenase expression. Exposure of SCCF1 cells to the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor tepoxalin resulted in apoptosis; the effect appeared to be mediated via alteration of cell signaling rather than via suppression of lipid mediators that are typically produced as a result of 5-lipoxygenase activity.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In cats, expression of 5-lipoxygenase in SCCs appeared to differ depending on tumor location. The influence of tepoxalin-induced 5-lipoxygenase inhibition on a 5-lipoxygenase–expressing cell line coupled with the notable expression of 5-lipoxygenase in oral SCCs suggested that 5-lipoxygenase inhibition may have therapeutic benefits in affected cats. Although the safety of tepoxalin in cats has yet to be investigated, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors should be evaluated for use as a potential treatment for SCCs in that species.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the difference in histologic artifacts and morphologic diagnosis among 3 laparoscopic cup biopsy forceps techniques and wedge hepatic samples.

ANIMALS

Cadavers of 20 client-owned dogs following euthanasia for unrelated reasons between January 3 and July 29, 2021.

PROCEDURES

Four biopsy techniques were performed from the margin of 3 liver lobes/dog. Laparoscopic techniques used 5-mm cup biopsy forceps to obtain biopsy samples by pulling the forceps forcefully caudally to free a sample (the PULL technique), rotating the forceps 360° in 1 direction until freed (the TWST technique), or pulling the forceps through a 5-mm cannula to remove the sample (the CAN technique); wedge biopsy samples served as the control (CON). Data collected included sample weight, histologic features, diagnosis, and artifact characterization. Gwet AC1 or intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to detect agreement among techniques.

RESULTS

Sample weights for CON and TWST were significantly larger (P < .001 and P = .035, respectively) than for PULL and CAN. There was excellent agreement among all techniques for most diagnostic features (Gwet AC1, 0.93 to 1). The TWST technique resulted in the best overall artifact profile for laparoscopic techniques, with 90% of samples (54/60) having crisp edges and 65% of samples (39/60) having no or mild tearing. The agreement was moderate to good (ICC, 0.73 for edges and 0.76 for tearing) among all cup biopsy forceps techniques.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The TWST technique resulted in the largest sample and had the fewest artifacts, supporting its continued use during laparoscopic procedures.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare complications between central and peripheral administration of high-osmolarity (approx 700 to 1,000 mOsm/L) amino acid (± lipid) infusions.

ANIMALS

18 client-owned dogs diagnosed with aminoaciduric canine hypoaminoacidemic hepatopathy syndrome or superficial necrolytic dermatitis receiving parenteral amino acid ± lipid infusions.

METHODS

In this retrospective case series, medical records were reviewed for administration route (central vs peripheral), catheter details and infusion characteristics (product osmolarity, concurrent lipid administration, infusion volume, duration, and rate), and complications for each infusion.

RESULTS

18 dogs received 277 infusions (median, 8.5; range, 1 to 84). Effective infusion osmolarities were 683 mOsm/L in 22% of infusions, 791 mOsm/L in 8%, 802 mOsm/L in 2%, 837 mOsm/L in 45%, and 998 mOsm/L in 23% (65% peripheral, 35% central). Most (n = 230 [83%]) infusions were given peripherally. The osmolarities of solutions administered by each route (P = .53), the infusion rate indexed to body weight (P = .17), or the lipid infusion rates indexed to body weight (P = .89) did not differ. One dog suffered 2 complications in 63 infusions—1 mild, 1 severe—both occurring with peripheral infusions. Thus, the overall complication rate was 2 of 277 (0.9%) infusions.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Short-term peripherally administered amino acid ± lipid infusions < 1,000 mOsm/L confer little risk compared to centrally administered infusions. Additional studies are needed to determine the safety of infusions with longer durations. Due to the relative ease of peripheral catheterization, clinicians should consider this route for medically managing aminoaciduric canine hypoaminoacidemic hepatopathy syndrome and superficial necrolytic dermatitis in dogs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

OBJECTIVE

To compare plasma concentrations of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) between healthy dogs and dogs with aminoaciduric canine hypoaminoacidemic hepatopathy syndrome (ACHES) dogs.

ANIMALS

Privately owned healthy (n = 5) control (CON) and ACHES (8; including 3 with diabetes mellitus) dogs enrolled between October 2, 2019, and March 4, 2020.

PROCEDURES

This was a prospective case-control study. Fasting and 15-minute postprandial plasma glucagon total GLP-1 concentrations were measured with commercial immunoassays.

RESULTS

Dogs with ACHES had lower fasting (median, 0.5; mean difference, 3.8; 95% CI, 0.52 to 7.0 pmol/L; P = .021) and postprandial (median, 0.35; mean difference, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.8 to 8.3 pmol/L; P = .002) plasma glucagon concentrations than CON (fasting and postprandial medians, 3.5 and 4.6 pmol/L, respectively). ACHES dogs had significantly (median, 4.15; mean difference, 12.65; 95% CI, 2.0 to 16.3 pg/ml; P = .011) lower postprandial plasma GLP-1 concentrations than CON (median, 16.8 pg/ml). There was no significant difference between fasting GLP-1 levels between the 2 groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Lower postprandial plasma GLP-1 concentrations may contribute to the propensity of diabetes mellitus in ACHES. Lower glucagon concentrations may reflect an appropriate physiologic response to hypoaminoacidemia.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine proinflammatory gene expression, endothelial adhesion molecule gene expression, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) concentrations in laminar specimens at 1.5 hours after administration of black walnut extract (BWE) and to compare these values with later time points.

Animals—25 horses.

Procedures—After nasogastric administration of BWE, anesthesia was induced at 1.5 hours in early time point (ETP) horses (n = 5), between 3 and 4 hours in developmental time point horses (5), and between 9 and 10 hours in acute onset of lameness time point horses (5). Anesthesia was induced at 3 and 10 hours after nasogastric administration of water in 2 groups of control horses (3-hour control group, n = 5; 10-hour control group, 5). Real-time quantitative PCR assay was performed on laminar specimens from control and ETP horses for cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MMP-2, and MMP-9 gene expression; and on laminar specimens from all groups for endothelial adhesion molecules, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and E-selectin gene expression. Leukocyte emigration was assessed via CD13 immunohistochemistry, and gelatinase accumulation was determined by gelatin zymography.

Results—Laminar concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, COX-2, ICAM-1, and E-selectin mRNA were significantly increased in ETP horses, compared with control horses. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-8, ICAM-1, and E-selectin mRNA peaked at 1.5 hours. In ETP horses, leukocyte emigration was present in 3 of 5 horses and pro–MMP-9 was detected in 2 of 5 horses.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that endothelial activation and laminar inflammation are early events in laminitis; MMP accumulation likely is a downstream event.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify metabolites and metabolic pathways affected in dogs with aminoaciduric canine hypoaminoacidemic hepatopathy syndrome (ACHES) compared to healthy control (CON) dogs of similar ages and breeds. To improve our understanding of ACHES pathophysiology and identify novel candidate biomarkers associated with ACHES.

ANIMALS

A prospective case-control study. Privately owned dogs with ACHES (n = 19) and healthy (CON) dogs (n = 9) were recruited between February 18, 2015, and April 18, 2018.

METHODS

A prospective case-control study. Plasma and urine were collected from ACHES and CON dogs. The Cornell University Proteomics and Metabolomics Core Facility conducted an untargeted metabolomic analysis.

RESULTS

After controlling for age, sex, and weight, 111 plasma and 207 urine metabolites significantly differed between ACHES and CON dogs. Data reduction and cluster analysis revealed robust segregation between ACHES and CON dogs. Enrichment analysis of significant compounds in plasma or urine identified altered metabolic pathways, including those related to AA metabolism, cellular energetics, and lipid metabolism. Biomarker analysis identified metabolites that best-distinguished ACHES from CON dogs, including pyruvic acid isomer and glycerol-3-phosphate in the plasma and an alanine isomer and choline in the urine.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings provide an in-depth analysis of metabolic perturbations associated with ACHES. Several affected metabolic pathways (eg, lipid metabolism) offer a new understanding of ACHES pathophysiology. Novel candidate biomarkers warrant further evaluation to determine their potential to aid in ACHES diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment monitoring.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To characterize aminoaciduria and plasma amino acid concentrations in dogs with hepatocutaneous syndrome (HCS).

ANIMALS 20 client-owned dogs of various breeds and ages.

PROCEDURES HCS was definitively diagnosed on the basis of liver biopsy specimens (n = 12), gross and histologic appearance of skin lesions (4), and examination of skin and liver biopsy specimens (2) and presumptively diagnosed on the basis of cutaneous lesions with compatible clinicopathologic and hepatic ultrasonographic (honeycomb or Swiss cheese pattern) findings (2). Amino acid concentrations in heparinized plasma and urine (samples obtained within 8 hours of each other) were measured by use of ion exchange chromatography. Urine creatinine concentration was used to normalize urine amino acid concentrations. Plasma amino acid values were compared relative to mean reference values; urine-corrected amino acid values were compared relative to maximal reference values.

RESULTS All dogs had generalized hypoaminoacidemia, with numerous amino acid concentrations < 50% of mean reference values. The most consistent and severe abnormalities involved glutamine, proline, cysteine, and hydroxyproline, and all dogs had marked lysinuria. Urine amino acids exceeding maximum reference values (value > 1.0) included lysine, 1-methylhistidine, and proline.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Hypoaminoacidemia in dogs with HCS prominently involved amino acids associated with the urea cycle and synthesis of glutathione and collagen. Marked lysinuria and prolinuria implicated dysfunction of specific amino acid transporters and wasting of amino acids essential for collagen synthesis. These findings may provide a means for tailoring nutritional support and for facilitating HCS diagnosis.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research