Objective—To evaluate the esophageal passage of
capsules in clinically normal cats and determine the
incidence of prolonged transit or entrapment.
Animals—12 clinically normal adult cats.
Procedure—Esophageal transit of barium sulfatefilled
capsules was evaluated fluoroscopically. Each
cat was examined 3 times (36 examinations).
Esophageal transit times were classified as normal
(≤ 30 seconds) or prolonged (> 30 but ≤ 240 seconds).
Capsules were considered entrapped when transit
times were > 240 seconds.
Results—Transit times were normal in 10 of the 36
(27.8%) examinations, whereas times were prolonged
in 7 (19.4%) examinations. Capsules became
entrapped in the midcervical region of the esophagus
during 19 (52.8%) examinations. Following termination
of each examination, cats with entrapped capsules
were fed a small amount (0.5 to 1 ounce) of
food; this resulted in passage of the capsule to the
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The possibility
of medication-induced esophagitis should be considered
when orally administering ulcerogenic drugs
to cats. It is recommended that a small volume of
food be given following medications to ensure complete
esophageal clearance. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:
Objective—To describe the gross cross-sectional
anatomy of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and evaluate
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection
of internal tumors in green turtles with cutaneous
Animals—3 dead green turtles, 1 healthy green turtle,
and 8 green turtles with cutaneous fibropapillomatosis.
Procedures—Gross cross-sectional anatomy of a
dead turtle was described. Each live turtle underwent
a complete physical examination, and dorsoventral
whole-body survey radiographic views were obtained.
Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in dorsal
and transverse planes. Radiographs and magnetic
resonance images were examined for evidence of
internal nodules. Results were compared with
necropsy findings in 5 of 8 turtles.
Results—Nodules in the lungs of 2 turtles were
detected via radiography, whereas pulmonary nodules
were detected in 5 turtles via MRI. No other visceral
nodules were detected via radiography; however,
masses in the stomach and adjacent to the bladder
and kidneys were detected in 1 turtle via MRI. Other
extrapulmonary abnormalities observed at necropsy
were not detected on MR images.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MRI may be
valuable for detection of internal tumors in green turtles
with cutaneous fibropapillomatosis. Nodules
were more apparent in the lungs than in other organs.
Results of MRI may serve as prognostic indicators for
sea turtles undergoing assessment, treatment, and
rehabilitation. Clinical application may be limited by
cost and availability of MRI technology. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1428–1435)
Objective—To determine the relationship between
parturition date and fetal skeletal mineralization
detected radiographically in cats.
Design—Prospective clinical trial.
Animals—31 queens and their 49 pregnancies.
Procedure—Seventeen pregnant queens were
radiographed with a computed radiography system
every 2 to 3 days from 1 week after pregnancy was
identified by abdominal palpation until parturition.
Radiographs were evaluated to determine the first
identifiable mineralization of 16 bony structures
and teeth during each pregnancy. This information
was used to establish a table of expected parturition
dates on the basis of fetal mineralization.
Single radiographs from an additional 32 pregnant
cats were evaluated, and predictions of parturition
dates were made on the basis of the mineralization
Results—Mineralization was first detected 25 to 29
days prior to parturition (dpp). Mineralization was
determined for the spinal column (22 to 27 dpp), skull
(21 to 27 dpp), ribs (20 to 25 dpp), scapula (17 to 24
dpp), humerus (20 to 24 dpp), femur (19 to 23 dpp),
radius (15 to 22 dpp), tibia (15 to 21 dpp), ulna (5 to 21
dpp), pelvis (8 to 20 dpp), fibula (0 to 17 dpp), tail (8 to
16 dpp), metacarpals and metatarsals (3 to 14 dpp),
phalanges (0 to 11 dpp), calcaneus (0 to 10 dpp), and
teeth (1 to 6 dpp). Date of parturition was predictable
within 3 days in 75% of cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Identification
of bony structures in the fetus is useful in estimating
the time to parturition in queens. (J Am Vet Med
Objective—To characterize signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, hepatic ultrasonographic characteristics, endocrinologic profiles, treatment response, and age at death of Scottish Terriers with progressive vacuolar hepatopathy (VH) with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—114 Scottish Terriers with progressive VH.
Procedures—Electronic databases from 1980 to 2013 were searched for adult (age > 1 year) Scottish Terriers with histopathologic diagnoses of diffuse glycogen-like VH. Available sections of liver specimens were histologically reevaluated to confirm diffuse VH with or without HCC; 8 dogs with HCC only had neoplastic tissue available. Physical examination, clinicopathologic, treatment, and survival data were obtained.
Results—39 of 114 (34%) dogs with VH had HCC detected at surgery or necropsy or by abdominal ultrasonography. Histologic findings indicated that HCC was seemingly preceded by dysplastic hepatocellular foci. No significant differences were found in clinicopathologic variables or age at death between VH-affected dogs with or without HCC. Fifteen of 26 (58%) dogs with high hepatic copper concentrations had histologic features consistent with copper-associated hepatopathy. Although signs consistent with hyperadrenocorticism were observed in 40% (46/114) of dogs, definitive diagnosis was inconsistently confirmed. Assessment of adrenal sex hormone concentrations before and after ACTH administration identified high progesterone and androstenedione concentrations in 88% (22/25) and 80% (20/25) of tested dogs, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that VH in Scottish Terriers may be linked to adrenal steroidogenesis and a predisposition to HCC. In dogs with VH, frequent serum biochemical analysis and ultrasonographic surveillance for early tumor detection are recommended.