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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To describe the gross cross-sectional anatomy of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) and evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection of internal tumors in green turtles with cutaneous fibropapillomatosis.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—3 dead green turtles, 1 healthy green turtle, and 8 green turtles with cutaneous fibropapillomatosis.

Procedures—Gross cross-sectional anatomy of a dead turtle was described. Each live turtle underwent a complete physical examination, and dorsoventral whole-body survey radiographic views were obtained. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in dorsal and transverse planes. Radiographs and magnetic resonance images were examined for evidence of internal nodules. Results were compared with necropsy findings in 5 of 8 turtles.

Results—Nodules in the lungs of 2 turtles were detected via radiography, whereas pulmonary nodules were detected in 5 turtles via MRI. No other visceral nodules were detected via radiography; however, masses in the stomach and adjacent to the bladder and kidneys were detected in 1 turtle via MRI. Other extrapulmonary abnormalities observed at necropsy were not detected on MR images.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—MRI may be valuable for detection of internal tumors in green turtles with cutaneous fibropapillomatosis. Nodules were more apparent in the lungs than in other organs. Results of MRI may serve as prognostic indicators for sea turtles undergoing assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation. Clinical application may be limited by cost and availability of MRI technology. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1428–1435)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To evaluate the esophageal passage of capsules in clinically normal cats and determine the incidence of prolonged transit or entrapment.

Animals—12 clinically normal adult cats.

Procedure—Esophageal transit of barium sulfatefilled capsules was evaluated fluoroscopically. Each cat was examined 3 times (36 examinations). Esophageal transit times were classified as normal (≤ 30 seconds) or prolonged (> 30 but ≤ 240 seconds). Capsules were considered entrapped when transit times were > 240 seconds.

Results—Transit times were normal in 10 of the 36 (27.8%) examinations, whereas times were prolonged in 7 (19.4%) examinations. Capsules became entrapped in the midcervical region of the esophagus during 19 (52.8%) examinations. Following termination of each examination, cats with entrapped capsules were fed a small amount (0.5 to 1 ounce) of food; this resulted in passage of the capsule to the stomach.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The possibility of medication-induced esophagitis should be considered when orally administering ulcerogenic drugs to cats. It is recommended that a small volume of food be given following medications to ensure complete esophageal clearance. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 655–657)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the relationship between parturition date and fetal skeletal mineralization detected radiographically in cats.

Design—Prospective clinical trial.

Animals—31 queens and their 49 pregnancies.

Procedure—Seventeen pregnant queens were radiographed with a computed radiography system every 2 to 3 days from 1 week after pregnancy was identified by abdominal palpation until parturition. Radiographs were evaluated to determine the first identifiable mineralization of 16 bony structures and teeth during each pregnancy. This information was used to establish a table of expected parturition dates on the basis of fetal mineralization. Single radiographs from an additional 32 pregnant cats were evaluated, and predictions of parturition dates were made on the basis of the mineralization table.

Results—Mineralization was first detected 25 to 29 days prior to parturition (dpp). Mineralization was determined for the spinal column (22 to 27 dpp), skull (21 to 27 dpp), ribs (20 to 25 dpp), scapula (17 to 24 dpp), humerus (20 to 24 dpp), femur (19 to 23 dpp), radius (15 to 22 dpp), tibia (15 to 21 dpp), ulna (5 to 21 dpp), pelvis (8 to 20 dpp), fibula (0 to 17 dpp), tail (8 to 16 dpp), metacarpals and metatarsals (3 to 14 dpp), phalanges (0 to 11 dpp), calcaneus (0 to 10 dpp), and teeth (1 to 6 dpp). Date of parturition was predictable within 3 days in 75% of cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Identification of bony structures in the fetus is useful in estimating the time to parturition in queens. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223:1614–1616)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine scintigraphic, sonographic, and histologic changes associated with renal autotransplantation in cats.


7 adult specific-pathogen-free cats: 5 males, 2 females, 1 to 9 years old.


Renal autotransplantation was performed by moving a kidney (5 left, 2 right) to the left iliac fossa. Before and at multiple times after surgery, for a total of 28 days, cats were evaluated by B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography, scintigraphy, and renal biopsy.


By 24 hours after surgery, a significant decrease (42%) in mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and an increase in mean renal size (81% increase in cross-sectional area) were evident in the transplanted kidney, compared with preoperative values. By postsurgery day 28, reduction in GFR was 23%. Significant changes in renal blood flow velocity were identified in both kidneys. Consistent changes in resistive index or pulsatility index for either kidney could not be identified. When all postoperative histologic data were combined, the histologic score, indicating degree and numbers of abnormalities detected, for the transplanted kidney was significantly higher than that for the control kidney.


Significant changes in renal function, size, and histologic abnormalities develop secondary to acute tubular necrosis in cats after uncomplicated renal autotransplantation.

Clinical Relevance

Evaluation of renal size and function may be of benefit for clinical evaluation of feline renal transplant patients, whereas measurement of the resistive index may be of little clinical value. (Am J Vet Res 1999;60:775–779)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To characterize signalment, clinical features, clinicopathologic variables, hepatic ultrasonographic characteristics, endocrinologic profiles, treatment response, and age at death of Scottish Terriers with progressive vacuolar hepatopathy (VH) with or without hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—114 Scottish Terriers with progressive VH.

Procedures—Electronic databases from 1980 to 2013 were searched for adult (age > 1 year) Scottish Terriers with histopathologic diagnoses of diffuse glycogen-like VH. Available sections of liver specimens were histologically reevaluated to confirm diffuse VH with or without HCC; 8 dogs with HCC only had neoplastic tissue available. Physical examination, clinicopathologic, treatment, and survival data were obtained.

Results—39 of 114 (34%) dogs with VH had HCC detected at surgery or necropsy or by abdominal ultrasonography. Histologic findings indicated that HCC was seemingly preceded by dysplastic hepatocellular foci. No significant differences were found in clinicopathologic variables or age at death between VH-affected dogs with or without HCC. Fifteen of 26 (58%) dogs with high hepatic copper concentrations had histologic features consistent with copper-associated hepatopathy. Although signs consistent with hyperadrenocorticism were observed in 40% (46/114) of dogs, definitive diagnosis was inconsistently confirmed. Assessment of adrenal sex hormone concentrations before and after ACTH administration identified high progesterone and androstenedione concentrations in 88% (22/25) and 80% (20/25) of tested dogs, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that VH in Scottish Terriers may be linked to adrenal steroidogenesis and a predisposition to HCC. In dogs with VH, frequent serum biochemical analysis and ultrasonographic surveillance for early tumor detection are recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association