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The efficacy of a 1-step surgical preparation technique for skin of dogs prior to elective ovariohysterectomy was evaluated. Dogs randomly assigned to group 1 (n = 30) had their skin prepared for surgery by use of a 2-step method, whereas the skin of dogs in group 2 (n = 30) was prepared for surgery by use of a commercially available product for a 1-step technique. Culture plates for quantitative bacterial counts were applied to the proposed incision site on dogs under general anesthesia after hair at the site was clipped and vacuumed but before antiseptic was applied. A second quantitative bacterial culture plate was applied to the proposed incision site after completion of the surgical preparation technique. Surgeries were routinely completed, and dogs were evaluated by physical examination the next day and at the time of suture removal (7 to 10 days after surgery) for complications. Postoperative complications were minor and consisted primarily of subcutaneous swelling, which resolved with time. All cultures obtained prior to skin preparation included bacteria or yeast. Sixteen cultures obtained after skin preparation (group 1, n = 11; group 2, n = 5) included bacteria or yeast. The total number of colonies of potential pathogens (Staphylococcus sp and Enterobacteriaceae) on the prepreparation cultures was 9,339; 4 colonies were counted on the postpreparation cultures. Potential bacterial pathogens, ie Streptococcus intermedius and gram-negative bacteria, were isolated from dogs prepared with the 2-step technique. None of the dogs that developed postoperative complications had growth on postpreparation culture plates.

There was no significant difference in the percent reduction of microbial numbers after skin preparation for either group. There was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between the pre- and postpreparation microbial numbers for both preparation techniques.

The 1-step technique was a simple, effective, and efficient method of skin preparation in dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the effects of ileocecocolic junction (ICJ) resection on gastrointestinal signs, biochemical parameters, and nutritional variables in dogs and cats.


20 dogs and 15 cats that underwent ICJ resection between January 2008 and June 2020.


Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent ICJ resection were reviewed, and clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities, and nutritional information were obtained. Additional follow-up information was obtained by contacting primary care veterinarians or owners. A subset of dogs (n = 6) and cats (2) were evaluated in the hospital via clinical examination, clinicopathologic testing, nutritional testing, and abdominal ultrasound.


Twenty dogs and 15 cats underwent resection of the ICJ for treatment of a variety of conditions. Ten of 20 dogs (50%) and 11/15 cats (73%) were reported by their owners to have a good long-term outcome based on the lack of long-term gastrointestinal signs or the ability to control gastrointestinal signs with diet and supplements alone. Despite owner-reported good outcomes, long-term diarrhea, weight loss, and muscle loss were common. Of the 6 dogs evaluated in the hospital, 3/6 (50%) had muscle loss, 2/6 (33%) had low taurine concentrations, and 1 dog each had low cobalamin, folate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and ionized calcium. Neither of the 2 cats evaluated in the hospital had nutritional abnormalities identified.


Owners should be informed of the possibility of long-term gastrointestinal clinical signs and the potential need for long-term nutritional management after ICJ resection.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


The effects of 3 occlusive dressing materials and a standard, nonadherent dressing material on healing of full-thickness skin defects were evaluated in dogs. Two wounds measuring 2 × 2 cm were created bilaterally (4 wounds/dog) on the dorsolateral aspect of the trunk of 12 Beagles. Wound treatments were evenly distributed between 4 sites, using a Latin square design. Treatments evaluated were: equine amnion (group A), biosynthetic hydrogel dressing (group B), transparent polyethylene sheeting (group T), and a semiocclusive rayon/polyethylene, nonadherent dressing (group C). Rates of contraction and epithelialization of group-A wounds were significantly greater than those of wounds of groups C, B, and T. On days 14, 21, and 28, mean percentage of wound contraction and mean percentage of total wound healed in group A exceeded those wounds in groups C, B, and T. On day 28, wounds in group A were significantly smaller than wounds in groups B and T, but were not significantly smaller than wounds in group C. All wounds in group A achieved 100% healing during the 28-day study period. Mean time for complete healing of group-A wounds was 21 days. The percentages of wounds completely healed by day 28 for groups B, C, and T were 25, 67, and 25%, respectively. Results indicate that use of equine amnion as an occlusive biological dressing on full-thickness wounds in dogs increases rate of healing.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research