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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To elucidate tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-mediated effects on chondrocytes.

Sample Population—Articular cartilage from humeral heads of 6 dogs.

Procedure—Chondrocytes from harvested specimens were cultured in 3-dimensional (3-D) agarose at 106 cells/mL. We prepared 3-D constructs exposed to only tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (50 ng/mL). Recombinant human TIMP-1 (255nM), -2 (285nM), or -3 (250nM) was added to liquid media bathing 3-D constructs cultured with TNF-α. Chondrocytes cultured without TIMP or TNF-α served as control samples. Samples of liquid media were collected on days 6, 9, 15, and 21 of culture for evaluation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and nitric oxide concentrations. The 3-D constructs were collected on days 9, 15, and 21 for evaluation of GAG, hydroxyproline (HP), and DNA contents.

Results—GAG content in control samples increased significantly during the study, whereas GAG content in 3-D constructs cultured with TNF-α or TNF-α plus TIMP did not increase. On day 9, GAG release from 3-D constructs cultured with TNF-α was significantly higher than that in other constructs. The HP content in control samples increased during the study and was significantly higher than that in all other constructs on day 21. Concentrations of nitric oxide were significantly lower in control samples on day 6, compared with concentrations for all other constructs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Addition of TIMPs did not counteract suppression of GAG and HP accumulation in 3-D constructs exposed to TNF-α. Apparently, adverse effects on chondrocytes exposed to TNF-α cannot be prevented by addition of TIMP alone. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1611–1615)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effects of interleukin (IL)-1β on matrix synthesis and degradation by chondrocytes cultured in a 3-dimensional (3-D) gel medium.

Sample Population—Chondrocytes from 7 dogs.

Procedure—Articular chondrocytes were harvested and cultured in 3-D gel medium alone or with 10 or 20 ng IL-1βml that was added beginning on day 0, 3, 6, or 9. On days 3, 6, 12, and 20 of 3-D culture, samples of the liquid medium were evaluated for glycosaminoglycan (GAG), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3 content. The 3-D plug in each well was evaluated for histologic characteristics of viability, cell morphology, and proteoglycan staining, immunohistochemically stained for collagen type II, and spectrophotometrically analyzed for GAG content.

Results—Significant differences for all variables were detected between controls and each IL-1β group, among groups with different IL-1β concentrations, and among groups with IL-1β added at various time points. Chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β had loss of GAG, increased PGE2 and MMP-3 concentrations, and lack of collagen type-II synthesis. These IL-1β effects appeared to be time and concentration dependent.

Conclusions—Addition of IL-1β to chondrocytes in 3- D gel medium results in time- and concentrationdependent effects on matrix synthesis and degradation and provides an appropriate in vitro model for many of the pathophysiologic events associated with osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:766–770)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To characterize chondrocytes from naturally occurring osteochondrosis (OC) lesions of the humeral head of dogs.

Sample Population—15 cartilage specimens from 13 client-owned dogs with humeral head OC and 10 specimens from the humeral head of healthy dogs (controls).

Procedure—Chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in a 3-dimensional system. On days 7, 10, 15, 20, and 25, glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline content and cytologic characteristics were evaluated. Expression of collagen types I, II, and X was assessed by use of immunohistochemistry.

Results—Chondrocytes from OC lesions were less viable, compared with control chondrocytes. Glycosaminoglycan content in the OC group was significantly less than in the control group on all days except day 20. Hydroxyproline content was also significantly less in the OC group on days 10, 20, and 25. Expression of collagen type II was significantly less in the OC group, compared with the control group on all days, whereas expression of collagen type I was significantly greater in the OC group on days 20 and 25. Expression of collagen type X was significantly less in the OC group on all days except day 25.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Chondrocytes from naturally occurring OC lesions of the humeral head of dogs cultured in a 3-dimensional system were less viable and less capable of producing appropriate extracellular matrix molecules than chondrocytes from unaffected dogs. Alterations in the synthetic capabilities of chondrocytes from OC-affected cartilage may be a cause or an effect of the disease process. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:186–193)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate biocompatibility and effects of implantation of 3-dimensional chondrocyte-agarose autografts in tibial defects in rabbits and to compare in vitro and in vivo chondrocyte-agarose constructs with respect to cell viability, differentiation, and matrix production.

Animals—24 adult New Zealand White rabbits.

Procedure—Three-dimensional constructs with (grafted group) or without (control group) autogenous chondrocytes were implanted into tibial defects of rabbits and cultured in vitro. During an 8-week period, defects were evaluated radiographically, grossly, histologically, biochemically, and immunohistochemically. In vitro constructs were evaluated histologically, biochemically, and immunohistochemically.

Results—Tibial defects had significantly higher radiographic densitometry values at 4 and 6 weeks after implantation in grafted group rabbits, compared with control group rabbits. Number of observed centers of endochondral ossification was significantly greater in defects of grafted group rabbits, compared with control group rabbits. On day 14, glycosaminoglycan concentration was significantly higher in tibial defects of grafted group rabbits, compared to defects of control group rabbits or in vitro constructs. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, glycosaminoglycan concentrations were significantly lower in the in vitro control constructs, compared with other groups. Collagen type I was present in bone and bony callous in defects of grafted and control group rabbits. Collagen type II was identified in cartilaginous tissues of grafted and control group rabbits. Collagen type X was associated with hypertrophic chondrocytes. Only type II collagen was found in the in vitro chondrocyte constructs.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Chondrocyte-agarose grafts are biocompatible in large tibial defects and appear to provide a cell source for augmenting endochondral ossification. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:12–20)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine glycosaminoglycan (GAG) concentration and immunohistochemical staining characteristics of type-I, -II, and -X collagen from cartilage affected by osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in dogs.

Animals—31 dogs with OCD and 11 clinically normal purpose-bred dogs.

Procedure—Cartilage samples were evaluated microscopically, and GAG content was determined. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for type-I, -II, and -X collagen. Sections were subjectively evaluated for location and intensity of staining.

Results—Cartilage affected by OCD had a variety of pathologic changes and significantly lower GAG concentrations than did normal cartilage. Normal cartilage had no detectable type-I collagen. For dogs < 9 months of age, cartilage affected by OCD had significantly more type-I collagen but significantly less type- X collagen than did control cartilage. For dogs > 12 months of age, cartilage affected by OCD contained significantly more type-I collagen than did control cartilage. There was a significant negative correlation between immunoreactivity of type-I collagen and that of type-II and -X collagen. A significant positive correlation was found between immunoreactivity of type-II and -X collagen.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Cartilage affected by OCD contains less GAG, more type-I collagen, and less type-X collagen, compared with normal cartilage. A direct correlation between these changes and the etiopathogenesis of OCD was not established. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:876–881)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine effects of carprofen and dexamethasone on chondrocytes in a culture model of osteoarthritis (OA).

Sample Population—Chondrocytes isolated from articular cartilage of the humeral head of 5 adult dogs.

Procedure—Chondrocytes were harvested, cultured and subcultured in monolayer, and then cultured in a 3-dimensional (3-D) medium. Cells from each dog were distributed into 6 groups with differing content of liquid medium for each 3-D construct (agarose [AG], AG plus interleukin [IL]-1β, AG plus carprofen [4 μg/mL], AG plus dexamethasone [1 mg/mL], AG plus IL-1β [20 ng/mL] plus carprofen [4 μg/mL], and AG plus IL-1β (20 ng/mL) plus dexamethasone (1 mg/mL). On days 3, 6, 12, and 20 of culture, samples from all groups were collected. Liquid media were assayed for glycosaminoglycan, prostaglandin (PG)E2, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3, and MMP- 13 concentrations. All 3-D constructs were evaluated for viability, cell morphology, proteoglycan staining, and collagen type-II concentration. Total glycosaminoglycan content in each 3-D construct was quantitated by spectrophotometric assay.

Results—Addition of IL-1β caused a significant loss of cell viability and matrix production. Addition of carprofen or dexamethasone caused significant decreases in PGE2 in the liquid media, and each was minimally effective in protecting chondrocytes against negative effects of IL-1β.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Human recombinant IL-1β resulted in loss of cell viability, alterations in extracellular matrix components, and production of PG and MMP. Carprofen and dexamethasone had little effect on cell and matrix variables but did decrease PGE2 concentrations and primarily affected the inflammatory pathway of osteoarthritis. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1363–1369)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics of mammary duct ectasia in dogs.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—51 dogs with mammary duct ectasia.

Procedure—Information regarding body condition, history, number and location of affected mammary glands, appearance of lesions, surgical treatment, nonsurgical treatment, and evidence of recurrence or development of mammary neoplasia was obtained from surveys sent to referring veterinarians. Results of information from examination of histologic sections and referring veterinarians were evaluated for all mammary duct ectasia biopsies performed between 1992 and 1999.

Results—Duct ectasia was the primary diagnosis in 51 of 1,825 (2.8%) mammary biopsy specimens and comprised 48% of nonneoplastic mammary diseases. Affected dogs were evenly distributed over a range of 1 to 13 years of age, with a mean age at the time of diagnosis of 6.1 ± 3.1 years. All dogs were female (31 sexually intact, 20 spayed); 10 of 26 had whelped. Duct ectasia was described as nodular (26 dogs), cystic (13), and multiglandular (11) and located in caudal (31) more often than cranial (14) or middle glands (10). Ectasia recurred in 3 dogs. One dog had a history of previously excised mammary adenocarcinoma; another subsequently developed mammary carcinoma.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Duct ectasia affected mature, sexually intact and spayed female dogs over a wide age range. Certain breeds were affected more commonly than expected. Increased risk for mammary neoplasia was not evident. Duct ectasia should be considered as a cause for mammary enlargement, especially in young dogs or when its cystic nature is evident. Mastectomy is usually curative, and neoplasia should be ruled out in dogs with ectasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1303–1307)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine immunoreactivity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -3, and -13 in cartilaginous tumors of dogs, correlate expression of MMP with histologic grade of tumors and clinical outcome of dogs, and compare MMP immunoreactivity between chondrosarcomas and chondromas.

Sample Population—Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues obtained from samples of naturally occurring chondrosarcomas (n = 31) and chondromas (8) of dogs that were submitted to our veterinary medical diagnostic laboratory.

Procedure—Histologic sections from each sample were stained with H&E and monoclonal antibody to MMP-1, -3, and -13 by use of an avidin-peroxidase immunohistochemical technique. For each section, histologic grade (I, II, or III) and immunohistochemical expression (0, 1, 2, or 3) were evaluated. Clinical outcome was obtained from medical records or interviews with referring veterinarians and scored as a good outcome, moderate outcome, or poor outcome. Correlations among variables and differences between chondrosarcomas and chondromas were analyzed.

Results—Samples from chondrosarcomas had significantly higher immunoreactivity of MMP-1 and -13, compared with immunoreactivity in samples from chondromas. In chondrosarcomas, a significant positive correlation (r, 0.386) was found between MMP-1 and -13 immunoreactivities, and a significant negative correlation (r, –0.390) was detected between MMP-3 and -13 immunoreactivities.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—A significant increase in expression of collagenases (MMP-1 and - 13) in chondrosarcomas, compared with expression in chondromas, suggests that collagenases may play an important role in tumor progression, and possibly metastasis, in chondrosarcomas of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1285–1291)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research