Objective—To compare efficacy, required resources, and perioperative complications between laser lithotripsy and cystotomy for urolith (ie, urocystoliths and urethroliths) removal in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—66 dogs with urolithiasis treated by laser lithotripsy (case dogs) and 66 dogs with urolithiasis treated by cystotomy (control dogs).
Procedures—Medical records were reviewed. Complete urolith removal rate, resources (ie, duration of hospitalization, procedure time, anesthesia time, procedure cost, and anesthesia cost), and complications (ie, hypotension, hypothermia, incomplete urolith removal, and requirement of an ancillary procedure) were compared between cystotomy group dogs and lithotripsy group dogs.
Results—Duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter for lithotripsy group dogs, compared with cystotomy group dogs. Procedure time was significantly shorter for cystotomy group dogs, compared with lithotripsy group dogs. Cost of anesthesia was significantly less for cystotomy group dogs, compared with lithotripsy group dogs. No significant differences were found between cystotomy group dogs and lithotripsy group dogs with regard to urolith removal rate, procedure cost, anesthesia time, or any of the evaluated complications.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive procedure that has been shown to be safe and effective in the removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs. No significant differences were found in the required resources or complications associated with laser lithotripsy, compared with cystotomy, for removal of uroliths from the lower portions of the urinary tract of dogs. Laser lithotripsy is a suitable, minimally invasive alternative to surgical removal of urethroliths and urocystoliths in dogs.
Objective—To characterize the efficacy and safety of laser lithotripsy in the fragmentation of urocystoliths and urethroliths for removal in dogs.
Design—Prospective case series.
Animals—100 dogs with naturally occurring urocystoliths and urethroliths.
Procedures—Via cystoscopy, laser lithotripsy was performed to fragment uroliths. Basket retrieval and voiding urohydropropulsion were used to remove fragments. Postprocedural contrast cystography was performed to assess efficacy and safety. In 40 dogs, midstream urine samples were collected just prior to laser lithotripsy (day 0) and on days 1, 3, and 11 after laser lithotripsy to assess inflammation.
Results—Urolith removal was complete in 82% of dogs (52/66 with only urocystoliths, 17/17 with only urethroliths, and 13/17 with urocystoliths and urethroliths). Urolith removal was incomplete in 18 dogs; of these dogs, 9, 6, and 3 had urolith fragments ≥ 3 mm, 1 to < 3 mm, and < 1 mm in diameter, respectively. Sex (female) was the most significant predictor for success. Median procedure time was 72 minutes. Two dogs developed urinary tract obstruction following laser lithotripsy. Hematuria was detected in 53% of dogs on day 0 and in 84%, 13%, and 3% of dogs on days 1, 3, and 11, respectively. Leukocyturia was detected in 13% of dogs on day 0 and in 47%, 0%, and 3% of dogs on days 1, 3, and 11, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that use of laser lithotripsy was a safe and effective alternative to surgical removal of urocystoliths and urethroliths in dogs.