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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To measure blood lead concentrations (BLCs) in dogs living in Flint, Mich, following a declared water crisis and to assess potential associations of BLCs with demographic data, water sources, and clinical signs in these dogs.

DESIGN Cross-sectional study.

ANIMALS 284 dogs residing in Flint, Mich (test population), and 47 dogs residing in East Lansing, Mich (control population), and immediately adjacent areas.

PROCEDURES Blood samples were collected at free screening clinics in Flint (test population) and at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Medical Center (control population). Owners of test population dogs completed questionnaires providing demographic and clinical information. Hematologic evaluations were performed; BLCs were measured by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry.

RESULTS 4 of 284 test population dogs had BLCs > 50 ppb; an additional 20 had BLCs > 20 ppb. Overall, BLCs of test population dogs were higher than those of control dogs. Within the test population, young dogs (≤ 2 years of age) had higher BLCs than old dogs (≥ 6 years of age). Only 7.2% of test population dogs were drinking unfiltered tap water at the time of screening; however, dogs that had been receiving filtered or bottled water for ≤ 3 months before screening had higher BLCs than did those that received such water for > 3 months.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Taken together, findings suggested that the impact of the Flint water crisis extended to companion animals. Results highlighted the importance of maintaining awareness of lead exposure and considering both human and animal well-being in cases of environmental toxicant exposures.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate (TTM) after IV and oral administration to dogs and effects of TTM administration on trace mineral concentrations.

ANIMALS 8 adult Beagles and Beagle crossbreds (4 sexually intact males and 4 sexually intact females).

PROCEDURES Dogs received TTM (1 mg/kg) IV and orally in a randomized crossover study. Serum molybdenum and copper concentrations were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in samples obtained 0 to 72 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetics was determined via noncompartmental analysis.

RESULTS For IV administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 4.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL, 30.7 ± 5.4 μg/mL•h, and 27.7 ± 6.8 hours, respectively. For oral administration, mean ± SD terminal elimination rate constant, time to maximum concentration, maximum concentration, area under the curve, and half-life were 0.03 ± 0.01 hours−1, 3.0 ± 3.5 hours, 0.2 ± 0.4 μg/mL, 6.5 ± 8.0 μg/mL•h, and 26.8 ± 8.0 hours, respectively. Oral bioavailability was 21 ± 22%. Serum copper concentrations increased significantly after IV and oral administration. Emesis occurred after IV (2 dogs) and oral administration (3 dogs).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetics for TTM after a single IV and oral administration was determined for clinically normal dogs. Absorption of TTM after oral administration was variable. Increased serum copper concentrations suggested that TTM mobilized tissue copper. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic use of TTM in copper-associated chronic hepatitis of dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Case Description—A 19-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated at 265 days of gestation with a markedly distended abdomen and edema of the ventral portion of the abdomen.

Clinical Findings—The uterus was distended over the pelvic rim, making transrectal palpation of the fetus impossible. Transabdominal ultrasonography revealed excessive amounts of fetal fluid. Results of analysis of fluid obtained via amnio- and allantocentesis confirmed that the amniotic cavity was large.

Treatment and Outcome—The mare was monitored for signs of weakness of the prepubic tendon and abdominal wall. The fetus and placenta were monitored for signs of stress and pending abortion. Flunixin meglumine and altrenogest were administered to the mare. Parturition was attended and occurred at 321 days' gestation. Postpartum complications in the mare included hypovolemic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. Both conditions were treated, and the mare recovered. The foal was considered small, had bilateral angular limb deformities, and was unable to nurse. The foal was given plasma for failure of passive transfer of immunity. Ten months later, the foal underwent procedures to correct limb deformities.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydrops conditions are rare in horses, with hydrops allantois occurring more frequently than hydrops amnion; reportedly result in fetal or neonatal death; and may result in death of or injury to the mare. Close monitoring of maternal and fetal health in combination with supportive treatment of the mare can result in the safe progression of a hydrops pregnancy and the birth of a live foal.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association