To determine the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after single IV or orally administered boluses in common ravens (Corvus corax).
8 healthy common ravens.
Voriconazole (5 mg/mL, 10 mg/kg IV) was administered to 8 birds, and then plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured at various time points by high-pressure liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Starting 6 months later in a randomized 3-treatment 3-period regimen, birds received a single oral dose of voriconazole suspension (10 mg/mL; 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg PO). The study period was May 2015 to March 2016.
Voriconazole (10 mg/kg IV) achieved an initial plasma concentration of 6.31 µg/mL when measured over 21 hours. After oral administration of voriconazole at 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg, the relative bioavailability was 67.5%, 209%, and 183%, respectively. For the 6-mg/kg dose, the maximum plasma concentration was reached at 30 minutes after administration and remained in the therapeutic range of 0.5 to 1 µg/mL for approximately 15 hours. The 12- and 24-mg/kg doses resulted in concentrations in a potentially toxic range.
Voriconazole was well tolerated. All 4 doses resulted in plasma concentrations of voriconazole > 0.5 µg/mL, which is the minimum inhibitory concentration recommended for pathogenic species of Aspergillus fungi known to affect birds. A single dose of voriconazole administered as 10 mg/kg IV or 6 mg/kg PO resulted in recommended target plasma concentrations. Administration of voriconazole 6 mg/kg PO 2 to 3 times daily may be adequate for treatment without exceeding the toxic range.
Objective—To describe clinical signs, diagnostic findings,
and outcome in dogs with idiopathic intrahepatic
Procedure—Medical records of dogs with portal
hypertension of intra-abdominal origin were reviewed.
Dogs with intra-abdominal portal hypertension of vascular
causes or with hepatic histopathologic changes
consistent with severe diffuse hepatobiliary disease
were excluded. History and results of physical examination,
clinicopathologic tests, diagnostic imaging
studies, histologic examination, and treatment were
summarized. Outcome was determined in 26 dogs.
Results—Dogs were referred most often because of
ascites, intermittent vomiting or diarrhea, and polydipsia
of several months' duration. Microcytosis, high
serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine transaminase
activities, hepatic dysfunction, urine specific gravity ≤
1.021, and abdominal transudate were the predominant
clinicopathologic features. Microhepatia, abdominal
effusion, and multiple anomalous venous anastomoses
were the major findings of diagnostic imaging.
Hepatic histopathologic changes were consistent
with idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension and
were indistinguishable from those of dogs with surgically
created portocaval anastomosis. Outcome was
determined for 19 dogs released from hospital; 13
dogs remained healthy with mostly palliative treatment
for periods of 5 months to 9 years.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The clinical
signs, clinicopathologic test results, portal pressure,
and gross appearance of the liver of dogs with idiopathic
noncirrhotic portal hypertension may be identical
to those of dogs with cirrhosis; therefore liver
biopsy is crucial. Because the prognosis for idiopathic
noncirrhotic portal hypertension is generally favorable,
owners of affected dogs should be discouraged from
choosing euthanasia. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;
Objective—To compare the mechanical characteristics of polymerized caprolactam and monofilament nylon loops with those of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) in cattle.
Sample—6 femorotibial joints harvested from 3 cows and suture constructs made from No. 8 polymerized caprolactam, 80-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line, and 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line.
Procedures—Joints were cleared of soft tissue structures except the CCL, connected to a load frame, and loaded to failure while measuring force and elongation. Synthetic constructs tested in a similar manner included single-stranded and 3-stranded No. 8 polymerized caprolactam, 3- and 6-stranded 80-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line, and 3- and 6-stranded 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line.
Results—The CCL ruptured at a mean ± SD force of 4,541 ± 1,417 N with an elongation of 2.0 ± 0.3 cm. The tensile strength of 3-stranded 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line was similar to that of the CCL, rupturing at loads of 5,310 ± 369 N (braided strands) and 6,260 ± 239 N (parallel strands). Elongation was greater for braided constructs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The 3-stranded cords of 450-lb test monofilament nylon fishing line most closely approximated the strength of the CCL. Marked increases in elongation occur when large-sized materials are constructed in braided configurations, and this elongation would likely not provide stability in CCL-deficient stifle joints. Additional studies are needed to determine whether any of these materials are suitable CCL replacements in cattle.
Objective—To determine whether Scottish Terriers have higher serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and a higher prevalence of diseases commonly associated with high serum ALP activity than do dogs of other breeds.
Design—Retrospective case-control study.
Animals—85 Scottish Terriers and 340 age-matched control dogs that were not Scottish Terriers.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and data for year of evaluation, age, sex, breed, serum ALP activity, and final diagnosis were recorded.
Results—Scottish Terriers had a significantly higher mean serum ALP activity than did control dogs (1,520 U/L vs 306 U/L). Regardless of breed, dogs that had a disease commonly associated with high serum ALP activity had a significantly higher mean serum ALP activity than did dogs without such diseases (1,304 U/L vs 427 U/L). Scottish Terriers were 2.4 times as likely to have a disease commonly associated with high serum ALP activity than were control dogs, but Scottish Terriers with diseases commonly associated with high serum ALP activity had a significantly higher mean ALP activity than did control dogs with such diseases (2,073 U/L vs 909 U/L), and Scottish Terriers without such diseases had a significantly higher mean serum ALP activity than did control dogs without such diseases (1,349 U/L vs 228 U/L).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that Scottish Terriers have higher serum ALP activities than do dogs of other breeds. Although Scottish Terriers also have a higher prevalence of diseases associated with high serum ALP activity, this alone did not explain the higher mean serum ALP activity in the breed.
Objective—To compare accuracy of estimates of cystolith size obtained by means of plain radiography, double-contrast cystography, ultrasonography, and computed tomography.
Sample Population—30 canine cystoliths ranging from 1 to 11 mm in diameter with various mineral compositions.
Procedures—A bladder phantom model was created by filling a rubber balloon with saline (1% NaCl) solution and positioning it on top of a 2% gelatin cushion at the bottom of a water-filled 4-quart container. Cystoliths were individually placed in the bladder phantom and imaged by each of the 4 techniques. For each image, cystolith size was measured by 2 radiologists with computerized calipers, and size estimates were compared with actual cystolith size.
Results—Mean cystolith size estimates obtained by means of radiography, cystography, and computed tomography did not differ significantly from each other. However, for ultrasonographic images, mean ± SD difference between actual and estimated cystolith size (2.95 ± 0.73 mm) was significantly higher than mean difference for radiographic, cystographic, and computed tomographic images. For ultrasonography, mean ± SD percentage overestimation in cystolith size was 68.4 ± 51.5%.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that measurements of cystolith size obtained by means of ultrasonography may overestimate the true size. This suggests that cystolith size estimates obtained by means of ultrasonography should be interpreted with caution whenever cystolith size may influence patient management.