History: The dog was evaluated because of abnormal gait and weakness in the pelvic limbs. The owners reported that the dog was falling occasionally, had difficulty climbing stairs, and was knuckling and scuffing the feet of both pelvic limbs. Signs were worse on the dog's left side, according to the owners. The ataxia and paresis had progressed slowly over the preceding 6 months. A diagnosis of hip dysplasia had been made previously by the referring veterinarian, who also surgically removed a subcutaneous lipoma from the left shoulder area 6 months
Objective—To compare differential cell counts and
cell characteristics of CSF samples analyzed immediately
or after storage for 24 and 48 hours at 4 C with
and without the addition of autologous serum.
Animals—36 dogs and 6 cats.
Procedure—CSF samples were collected from the
cerebellomedullary cistern and divided into 250-μl
aliquots. Slides of CSF samples were prepared by use
of cytocentrifugation immediately and after 24 and 48
hours of storage with addition of autologous serum
(final concentrations, 11 and 29%). Differential cell
counts and number of unrecognizable cells were
compared among preparations.
Results—Significant differences in the differential
cell counts were not detected among samples analyzed
before or after storage. Although the number of
unrecognizable cells increased with storage time,
this did not result in a significant effect on cell distribution
or diagnosis. Cells in CSF samples stored with
11% serum more closely resembled cells in fresh
samples than did cells in samples stored with 29%
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CSF samples
collected at veterinary clinics remote from a diagnostic
laboratory or during nonoperational hours may be
preserved through the addition of autologous serum.
Evaluation of such samples is likely to result in an
accurate diagnosis for at least 48 hours after collection.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1761–1764)
Objective—To evaluate long-term neurologic outcome
in dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) that
were treated nonsurgically with a cervical splint.
Animals±19 dogs with AAS and managed with a
Procedure—Medical records from 2 university hospitals
were reviewed. Information pertaining to trauma,
duration of clinical signs prior to admission, medical
treatments prior to admission, results of neurologic
and physical examinations at the time of admission,
results of laboratory testing, results of diagnostic
imaging, neurologic status at the time of discharge,
duration of time the cervical splint was used for treatment,
and neurologic status at the time of splint
removal and at a final reexamination was extracted
from the medical records. Long-term outcome was
defined as neurologic status greater than or equal to
1 year after splint removal. Factors associated with a
good or poor long-term outcome were determined.
Results—A good final outcome was reported in 10 of
16 dogs. Median duration of clinical signs prior to referral
was 30 days; dogs that were affected ≤ 30 days
were significantly more likely to have a good long-term
outcome, compared with dogs affected > 30 days. The
neurologic grade at admission, radiographic appearance
of the dens, age at onset of clinical signs, and
history were not associated with outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nonsurgical
management of AAS by use of a cervical splint is a
viable treatment modality for young dogs with a first
episode of acute-onset clinical signs, regardless
of the severity of neurologic deficits at admission.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:257–262)
Objective—To identify matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in CSF from dogs with intracranial tumors.
Sample—CSF from 55 dogs with intracranial tumors and 37 control dogs.
Procedures—Latent and active MMP-2 and -9 were identified by use of gelatin zymography. The presence of MMPs in the CSF of dogs with intracranial tumors was compared with control dogs that were clinically normal and with dogs that had idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy or peripheral vestibular disease. Relationships between MMP-9 and CSF cell counts and protein were also investigated.
Results—Latent MMP-2 was found in CSF samples from all dogs, although active MMP-2 was not detected in any sample. Latent MMP-9 was detected in a subset of dogs with histologically documented intracranial tumors, including meningiomas (2/10), gliomas (3/10), pituitary tumors (1/2), choroid plexus tumors (5/6), and lymphoma (4/4), but was not detected in any control samples. Dogs with tumors were significantly more likely than those without to have detectable MMP-9 in the CSF, and the presence of MMP-9 was associated with higher CSF nucleated cell counts and protein concentration.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Latent MMP-9 was detected in most dogs with choroid plexus tumors or lymphoma but in a smaller percentage of dogs with meningiomas, gliomas, or pituitary tumors. Detection of MMP in CSF may prove useful as a marker of intracranial neoplasia or possibly to monitor response of tumors to therapeutic intervention.