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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare differential cell counts and cell characteristics of CSF samples analyzed immediately or after storage for 24 and 48 hours at 4 C with and without the addition of autologous serum.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—36 dogs and 6 cats.

Procedure—CSF samples were collected from the cerebellomedullary cistern and divided into 250-μl aliquots. Slides of CSF samples were prepared by use of cytocentrifugation immediately and after 24 and 48 hours of storage with addition of autologous serum (final concentrations, 11 and 29%). Differential cell counts and number of unrecognizable cells were compared among preparations.

Results—Significant differences in the differential cell counts were not detected among samples analyzed before or after storage. Although the number of unrecognizable cells increased with storage time, this did not result in a significant effect on cell distribution or diagnosis. Cells in CSF samples stored with 11% serum more closely resembled cells in fresh samples than did cells in samples stored with 29% serum.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CSF samples collected at veterinary clinics remote from a diagnostic laboratory or during nonoperational hours may be preserved through the addition of autologous serum. Evaluation of such samples is likely to result in an accurate diagnosis for at least 48 hours after collection. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:1761–1764)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 in CSF from dogs with intracranial tumors.

Sample—CSF from 55 dogs with intracranial tumors and 37 control dogs.

Procedures—Latent and active MMP-2 and -9 were identified by use of gelatin zymography. The presence of MMPs in the CSF of dogs with intracranial tumors was compared with control dogs that were clinically normal and with dogs that had idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy or peripheral vestibular disease. Relationships between MMP-9 and CSF cell counts and protein were also investigated.

Results—Latent MMP-2 was found in CSF samples from all dogs, although active MMP-2 was not detected in any sample. Latent MMP-9 was detected in a subset of dogs with histologically documented intracranial tumors, including meningiomas (2/10), gliomas (3/10), pituitary tumors (1/2), choroid plexus tumors (5/6), and lymphoma (4/4), but was not detected in any control samples. Dogs with tumors were significantly more likely than those without to have detectable MMP-9 in the CSF, and the presence of MMP-9 was associated with higher CSF nucleated cell counts and protein concentration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Latent MMP-9 was detected in most dogs with choroid plexus tumors or lymphoma but in a smaller percentage of dogs with meningiomas, gliomas, or pituitary tumors. Detection of MMP in CSF may prove useful as a marker of intracranial neoplasia or possibly to monitor response of tumors to therapeutic intervention.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To evaluate long-term neurologic outcome in dogs with atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) that were treated nonsurgically with a cervical splint.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals±19 dogs with AAS and managed with a cervical splint.

Procedure—Medical records from 2 university hospitals were reviewed. Information pertaining to trauma, duration of clinical signs prior to admission, medical treatments prior to admission, results of neurologic and physical examinations at the time of admission, results of laboratory testing, results of diagnostic imaging, neurologic status at the time of discharge, duration of time the cervical splint was used for treatment, and neurologic status at the time of splint removal and at a final reexamination was extracted from the medical records. Long-term outcome was defined as neurologic status greater than or equal to 1 year after splint removal. Factors associated with a good or poor long-term outcome were determined.

Results—A good final outcome was reported in 10 of 16 dogs. Median duration of clinical signs prior to referral was 30 days; dogs that were affected ≤ 30 days were significantly more likely to have a good long-term outcome, compared with dogs affected > 30 days. The neurologic grade at admission, radiographic appearance of the dens, age at onset of clinical signs, and history were not associated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Nonsurgical management of AAS by use of a cervical splint is a viable treatment modality for young dogs with a first episode of acute-onset clinical signs, regardless of the severity of neurologic deficits at admission. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:257–262)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association