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To assess the fatigue and load-to-failure mechanical characteristics of an intramedullary nail with a threaded interference design (TID) in comparison to a commercially available veterinary angle-stable nail with a Morse taper bolt design (I-Loc) of an equivalent size.


10 single interlocking screw/bolt constructs of TID and I-Loc implants were assembled using steel pipe segments and placed through 50,000 cycles of simulated, physiologic axial or torsional loading. Entry torque, postfatigue extraction torque, and 10th, 25,000th, and 50,000th cycle torsional toggle were assessed. Each construct was then loaded to failure in the same respective direction as fatigue testing. Four complete constructs of each design were then assessed using a synthetic bone analog with a 50-mm central defect via nondestructive torsional and axial loading followed by axial load to failure.


All constructs were angle stable at all time points and withstood fatigue loading. Median insertional torque, extraction torque-to-insertion torque ratio, and torsional yield load were 33%, 33%, and 72.5% lower, respectively, for the TID interlocking screws. No differences in torsional peak load, torsional stiffness, axial yield load, axial stiffness, or axial peak load were identified. No differences in complete construct angle stability, torsional stiffness, axial peak load, axial stiffness, or axial yield load were identified.


The TID had an inferior torsional yield load when compared to I-Loc implants but generated angle stability and sustained simulated physiologic fatigue loading. The TID may be a suitable mechanism for generating angle stability in interlocking nails.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Summary—During 2005, 49 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,417 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the CDC, representing a 6.2% decrease from the 6,836 cases in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings reported in 2004. Approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,534 raccoons (39.5%), 1,478 skunks (23%), 1,408 bats (21.9%), 376 foxes (5.9%), 269 cats (4.2%), 93 cattle (1.5%), and 76 dogs (1.2%). Compared with numbers of reported cases in 2004, cases in 2005 decreased among all groups, except bats, horses, and other wild animals. Decreases in numbers of rabid raccoons during 2005 were reported by 10 of the 20 eastern states in which raccoon rabies was enzootic and decreased overall by 1.2%, compared with 2004.

On a national level, the number of rabies cases in skunks during 2005 decreased 20.4% from the number reported in 2004. Once again, Texas reported the greatest number (n = 392) of rabid skunks and the greatest overall state total of rabies cases (741). Texas reported no cases of rabies associated with the dog/coyote rabies virus variant and only 8 cases associated with the Texas gray fox rabies virus variant (compared with 22 cases in 2004). The total number of cases of rabies reported nationally in foxes decreased 3.3%, compared with those reported in 2004. The 1,408 cases of rabies reported in bats represented a 3.5% increase over numbers reported in 2005. Cases of rabies in cats, dogs, cattle, and sheep and goats decreased 4.3%, 19.2%, 19.1%, and 10%, respectively, whereas cases reported in horses and mules increased 9.3%. In Puerto Rico, reported cases of rabies in mongooses increased 29.8%, and rabies in domestic animals decreased 37.5%.

One case of human rabies was reported from Mississippi during 2005. This case was submitted by the state to the CDC's unexplained deaths project and diagnosed as rabies retrospectively.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association