Objective—To determine features of lymphoma of the tarsus in cats.
Design—Multi-institutional retrospective study.
Animals—23 cats with cutaneous lymphoma of the tarsus.
Procedures—Veterinary oncologists were requested to submit cases fitting the following criteria: histologically or cytologically confirmed lymphoma with a location at or near the tarsus and described as subcutaneous or mass-like. Data regarding breed, sex, age, FeLV and FIV status, and reason for evaluation were collected. Results of staging tests, location of the tumor, immunophenotype, and histopathologic description were recorded. Type of treatments, outcome, survival time, presence or absence of progressive disease, and cause of death or reason for euthanasia were also recorded.
Results—Most cats were older, with a median age of 12 years (range, 7 to 18 years). No association with positive retroviral status was found. Popliteal lymph node involvement at diagnosis was reported in 5 cats, and a suspicion of lymphoma at a different site on the basis of results of abdominal ultrasonography was reported in 4 cats. Treatments were variable and included corticosteroids alone (n = 2), chemotherapy (9), radiation and chemotherapy (7), or surgery with or without chemotherapy (5). Thirteen cats were reported to have lymphoma at a different site at the time of last follow-up, death, or euthanasia. Median survival time for all cats in the study was 190 days (range, 17 to 1,011 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that tarsal lymphoma is an uncommon manifestation of lymphoma in cats, and in this study was most commonly nonepitheliotropic and of high grade as determined on histologic evaluation. Systemic involvement was identified; therefore, thorough staging is recommended prior to initiating treatment. Future studies are warranted to evaluate effective treatment protocols.
Objective—To determine whether 3 variations of the
1,9-dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay yield
comparable results when measuring sulfated glycosaminoglycan
(sGAG) concentrations in equine synovial
Sample Population—25 samples of SF collected
from affected joints of 13 horses and 13 samples of
SF collected from nonaffected (control) joints of 4
Procedure—Sulfated glycosaminoglycan concentrations
were measured by the direct spectrophotometric
(ie, Farndale), microplate, and indirect DMMB
assays in samples of SF collected from normal and
affected joints and in samples digested with nucleases,
papain, and hyaluronidase.
Results—All 3 assays reacted similarly to standard
solutions of sGAGs and digestion of SF samples with
nucleases, papain, and hyaluronidase. Nucleic acids
were not important interfering substances, and
papain and hyaluronidase could not be used interchangeably
to digest SF. All 3 assays proved to have
satisfactory precision (SD < 10%), but each DMMB
assay resulted in significantly different measures of
sGAG in equine SF.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Samples of SF
should be digested with papain or hyaluronidase prior
to measurement via DMMB assay. Researchers currently
are unable to compare clinical information when
variations of the DMMB assay are used, because each
DMMB assay yields substantially different sGAG concentrations
in SF. Of the 3 assays examined here, we
recommend use of the direct spectrophotometric
DMMB assay. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:900–906)
Objective—To determine history, results of diagnostic testing, surgical findings, complications, and outcome for dogs with liver lobe torsion (LLT).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—12 dogs (1 with 2 episodes).
Procedure—Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, surgical and histologic findings, complications, and hospitalization time were evaluated.
Results—The most common clinical signs were nonspecific abnormalities (eg, vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia) of acute or chronic duration. All dogs were large-breed dogs (median body weight, 37.2 kg [82 lb]). Biochemical abnormalities included high alanine amino-transferase (n = 12) and aspartate aminotransferase (11) activities. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were supportive of the diagnosis in 5 of 8 cases. Affected lobes included the left medial lobe (n = 4), left lateral lobe (3), papillary process of the caudate lobe (2), caudate lobe (1), and right lateral lobe (1). Exploratory celiotomy and liver lobectomy were performed in 12 of 13 cases, and in 11 of those 12 cases, the dog survived.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that development of nonspecific clinical signs of vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia in conjunction with high serum hepatic enzyme activities and mature neutrophilia in a medium-sized or large-breed dog should increase the index of suspicion for LLT. Abdominal ultrasonography with Doppler assessment may be useful in establishing the diagnosis. The long-term outcome for dogs that survive the hospitalization period is excellent.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare surface and cross-sectional structure as well as localized electrochemical corrosion and ion release for cast stainless steel (SS) tibia plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) plates retrieved from dogs with and without osteosarcoma (OSA) and to compare these findings with similar variables for forged SS TPLO plates retrieved from dogs.
SAMPLE 47 TPLO plates explanted from 45 client-owned dogs (22 cast plates from dogs with OSA, 22 cast plates from dogs without OSA, and 3 forged plates from dogs without OSA).
PROCEDURES Histologic evaluations of tissue samples collected from implant sites at the time of plate retrieval were performed to confirm implant site tumor status of each dog. Surfaces and metallographic cross sections of retrieved plates were examined, and the microcell technique was used to obtain local electrochemical corrosion and ion release measurements.
RESULTS Findings indicated that all cast SS plates demonstrated high spatial variability of their electrochemical surface properties and inhomogeneous superficial and cross-sectional composition, compared with forged plates. Greater metal ion release was observed in cast plates than in forged plates and in cast plates from dogs with OSA than in cast or forged from dogs without OSA.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that accumulation of metal ions from implants could be a trigger for neoplastic transformation in neighboring cells. Metal ion release caused by corrosion of implants that do not comply with recommended standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials International or the International Organization for Standardization could potentially place patients at increased risk of tumor development.
Objective—To determine the material properties of Slocum TPLO plates and assess the soft tissue reaction adjacent to these plates in dogs that had undergone tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO).
Sample Population—3 new TPLO plates, 8 retrieved TPLO plates, and 1 new Synthes dynamic compression plate.
Procedures—Metallurgic analyses were performed. Tissue samples were obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved plates and submitted for histologic examination.
Results—All of the TPLO plates had a 2-phase microstructure consisting of austenite and ferrite in various amounts. Residua, inclusions, and cavities were seen during microscopic examination of the plate surface. The major differences between new and retrieved TPLO plates were the presence of small gaps separating many inclusions from the surrounding matrix and the presence of various-sized pits on the surface of the retrieved plates. The dynamic compression plate had a nearly pure austenitic structure and was largely free from residua, inclusions, and cavities. Histologic examination of tissue samples obtained from areas adjacent to retrieved TPLO plates revealed intra- and extracellular particulate debris. Two types of particles (one consisting of chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and iron and the other consisting of aluminum and silicon) were seen.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results determined that new and retrieved TPLO plates were manufactured from 316L stainless steel and produced by a casting process, but not all plates met specifications for chemical composition of cast surgical implants (American Society for Testing Materials standard F745); tissues surrounding retrieved plates had evidence of adverse reactions, probably as a result of plate corrosion.