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Objective—To evaluate the effects of a pico-tesla electromagnetic field (PTEF) on healing of sutured and open skin wounds and clinicopathologic variables in rats.

Animals—64 male Fischer-344 rats.

Procedure—An incision made in the dorsal aspect of the neck was sutured (n = 32) or left open to heal (32). In each group, 16 rats were not PTEF-treated (controls). Wound treatment consisted of exposure to a PTEF once daily. Rats in each group were euthanatized at days 2, 4, 7, and 14. Wounds were evaluated via tensiometry (sutured wounds), digital planimetry (open wounds), laser Doppler perfusion imaging, bacteriologic culture, and histologic examination. Blood samples were collected from all rats for analysis.

Results—At day 14, sutured wounds in PTEF-treated rats were stronger (ultimate stress) and tougher (strain energy) than were sutured wounds in control rats. Open wounds in PTEF-treated rats contracted more quickly at days 2 and 4 than did those in control rats. Compared with control wounds, histologic changes (indicative of improved healing) in sutured and open wounds in PTEF-treated rats were detected as early as day 4. Laser Doppler perfusion measurements, results of CBCs, serum biochemical analyses, and bacteriologic cultures were not different between groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Exposure to the PTEF caused no adverse effects on clinicopathologic, histologic, or bacteriologic variables tested in this study. It appears that PTEF is a safe form of adjuvant treatment for wounds and improves strength of sutured wounds and speeds contraction of open wounds. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:845–854)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


The protective immunity induced by 3 experimental FeLV vaccines were evaluated: Prototype inactivated FeLV vaccine developed from a molecularly cloned FeLV isolate (FeLV-faids-61E-A); a mixture of immunodominant synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of the FeLV-Gardner-Arnstein-B (FeLV-GA-B) envelope proteins; and an adjuvant-disrupted but non-activated virus prepared from a non-cloned FeLV field isolate comprised of subgroup A and B viruses (FeLV-05821-AB). Included as controls were parallel groups of cats inoculated with adjuvants alone or with an established commercial FeLV vaccine. After each inoculation and after virulent virus challenge exposure, sera from all cats were assayed for elisa-reactive antibody against purified FeLV, FeLV neutralizing (vn) antibody, and FeLV antigenemia/viremia—viral p27 antigen in serum and within circulating leukocytes. Immunity was challenged by oral/nasal exposure of vaccinated and control cats with FeLV-faids-61E-A or FeLV-05821-AB, an infective. noncloned, tissue-origin, FeLV field isolate containing suhgroup-A and -B viruses. Vaccine-induced immunity was assessed by comparing the postchallenge-exposure incidence of persistent viremia and the pre- and postchallenge exposure titers of vn and elisa antibody in cats of the control and vaccine groups. The percentage of cats that resisted development of persistent viremia after FeLV challenge exposure and the preventable fraclion (pf) for the vaccine groups (which adjusts for the severity of the challenge and the degree of innate resistance in the controls) were as allows: adjuvant controls, 26%; FeLV-faids-61E-A inactivated virus vaccine, 95% (pf = 93.2%); FeLV-GA-B peptide vaccine, 5% (−28.4%); FeLV- 05821-AB noninactivated vaccine, 67% (55.4%); and commercial FeLV vaccine, 35% (12.2%). The prechallenge exposure mean vn antibody titer for each group was: <1:8 in the adjuvant controls; 1:43 in the FeLV-faids-61E-A-vaccinated cats; <1:8 in the peptide-vaccinated cats; 1:38 in the noninactivated virus-vaccinated cats group; and 1:12 in the cats vaccinated with the commercial vaccine. Thus, induction of vn antibody in the vaccinated cats, although modest, appeared to be correlated with induction of protective immunity as defined by resistance to FeLV challenge exposure. Results of these studies indicate that inoculation of cats with an experimental inactivated virus vaccine prepared from a molecularly cloned FeLV isolate was most effective in stimulating protective immunity against heterologous and homologous FeLV challenge exposure.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To determine whether passage of whole blood through a microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump would damage canine erythrocytes.


Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy client-owned dogs.


Whole blood was passed through a standard microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump at 3 standard administration rates (12.5, 25, and 50 mL/h). Prefilter and postfilter blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of a simulated transfusion. Variables measured at each time point included erythrocyte osmotic fragility, mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, RBC distribution width, and RBC morphology. In-line pressure when blood passed through the microaggregate filter was measured continuously throughout the simulated transfusion. After the simulated transfusion was completed, filters were visually analyzed by use of scanning electron microscopy.


Regardless of administration rate, there was no significant difference in mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, or RBC distribution width between prefilter and postfilter samples. Additionally, there were no differences in in-line pressure during the simulated transfusion among administration rates. Echinocytes were the erythrocyte morphological abnormality most commonly observed at the end of the transfusion at administration rates of 12.5 and 25 mL/h.


Results suggested that regardless of the administration rate, the microaggregate filter did not alter fragility of canine RBCs, but may have altered the morphology. It appeared that the microaggregate filter would not contribute to substantial RBC damage for transfusions performed with a syringe pump.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research